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utf8_encode

(PHP 4, PHP 5)

utf8_encodeEncodes an ISO-8859-1 string to UTF-8

Описание

string utf8_encode ( string $data )

This function encodes the string data to UTF-8, and returns the encoded version. UTF-8 is a standard mechanism used by Unicode for encoding wide character values into a byte stream. UTF-8 is transparent to plain ASCII characters, is self-synchronized (meaning it is possible for a program to figure out where in the bytestream characters start) and can be used with normal string comparison functions for sorting and such. PHP encodes UTF-8 characters in up to four bytes, like this:

UTF-8 encoding
bytes bits representation
1 7 0bbbbbbb
2 11 110bbbbb 10bbbbbb
3 16 1110bbbb 10bbbbbb 10bbbbbb
4 21 11110bbb 10bbbbbb 10bbbbbb 10bbbbbb

Each b represents a bit that can be used to store character data.

Список параметров

data

An ISO-8859-1 string.

Возвращаемые значения

Returns the UTF-8 translation of data .


User Contributed Notes
utf8_encode
rodrigo at overflow dot biz
24-Apr-2010 06:16
I've been working on a is_utf8 function and wanted to post it here, in addition to others i also took in consideration the 5000 char bug:

<?php
define
('_is_utf8_split',5000);

function
is_utf8($string) { // v1.01
   
if (strlen($string) > _is_utf8_split) {
       
// Based on: http://mobile-website.mobi/php-utf8-vs-iso-8859-1-59
       
for ($i=0,$s=_is_utf8_split,$j=ceil(strlen($string)/_is_utf8_split);$i < $j;$i++,$s+=_is_utf8_split) {
            if (
is_utf8(substr($string,$s,_is_utf8_split)))
                return
true;
        }
        return
false;
    } else {
       
// From http://w3.org/International/questions/qa-forms-utf-8.html
       
return preg_match('%^(?:
                [\x09\x0A\x0D\x20-\x7E]            # ASCII
            | [\xC2-\xDF][\x80-\xBF]             # non-overlong 2-byte
            |  \xE0[\xA0-\xBF][\x80-\xBF]        # excluding overlongs
            | [\xE1-\xEC\xEE\xEF][\x80-\xBF]{2}  # straight 3-byte
            |  \xED[\x80-\x9F][\x80-\xBF]        # excluding surrogates
            |  \xF0[\x90-\xBF][\x80-\xBF]{2}     # planes 1-3
            | [\xF1-\xF3][\x80-\xBF]{3}          # planes 4-15
            |  \xF4[\x80-\x8F][\x80-\xBF]{2}     # plane 16
        )*$%xs'
, $string);
    }
}
?>
nico at mein-sachsen dot net
05-Jan-2010 08:21
in function fix_latin you should replace $input with $instr when calling preg_match
squeegee
26-Aug-2009 01:20
I think this is a reasonable port of Perl's Encoding::FixLatin by Grant McLean, which converts a string with mixed encodings (ASCII, ISO-8859-1, CP1252, and UTF-8) to UTF-8.

<?php

function init_byte_map(){
  global
$byte_map;
  for(
$x=128;$x<256;++$x){
   
$byte_map[chr($x)]=utf8_encode(chr($x));
  }
 
$cp1252_map=array(
   
"\x80"=>"\xE2\x82\xAC",    // EURO SIGN
   
"\x82" => "\xE2\x80\x9A" // SINGLE LOW-9 QUOTATION MARK
   
"\x83" => "\xC6\x92",      // LATIN SMALL LETTER F WITH HOOK
   
"\x84" => "\xE2\x80\x9E" // DOUBLE LOW-9 QUOTATION MARK
   
"\x85" => "\xE2\x80\xA6" // HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS
   
"\x86" => "\xE2\x80\xA0" // DAGGER
   
"\x87" => "\xE2\x80\xA1" // DOUBLE DAGGER
   
"\x88" => "\xCB\x86",      // MODIFIER LETTER CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT
   
"\x89" => "\xE2\x80\xB0" // PER MILLE SIGN
   
"\x8A" => "\xC5\xA0",      // LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH CARON
   
"\x8B" => "\xE2\x80\xB9" // SINGLE LEFT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
   
"\x8C" => "\xC5\x92",      // LATIN CAPITAL LIGATURE OE
   
"\x8E" => "\xC5\xBD",      // LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z WITH CARON
   
"\x91" => "\xE2\x80\x98" // LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK
   
"\x92" => "\xE2\x80\x99" // RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK
   
"\x93" => "\xE2\x80\x9C" // LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK
   
"\x94" => "\xE2\x80\x9D" // RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK
   
"\x95" => "\xE2\x80\xA2" // BULLET
   
"\x96" => "\xE2\x80\x93" // EN DASH
   
"\x97" => "\xE2\x80\x94" // EM DASH
   
"\x98" => "\xCB\x9C",      // SMALL TILDE
   
"\x99" => "\xE2\x84\xA2" // TRADE MARK SIGN
   
"\x9A" => "\xC5\xA1",      // LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH CARON
   
"\x9B" => "\xE2\x80\xBA" // SINGLE RIGHT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
   
"\x9C" => "\xC5\x93",      // LATIN SMALL LIGATURE OE
   
"\x9E" => "\xC5\xBE",      // LATIN SMALL LETTER Z WITH CARON
   
"\x9F" => "\xC5\xB8"       // LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS
 
);
  foreach(
$cp1252_map as $k=>$v){
   
$byte_map[$k]=$v;
  }
}

function
fix_latin($instr){
  if(
mb_check_encoding($instr,'UTF-8'))return $instr; // no need for the rest if it's all valid UTF-8 already
 
global $nibble_good_chars,$byte_map;
 
$outstr='';
 
$char='';
 
$rest='';
  while((
strlen($instr))>0){
    if(
1==preg_match($nibble_good_chars,$input,$match)){
     
$char=$match[1];
     
$rest=$match[2];
     
$outstr.=$char;
    }elseif(
1==preg_match('@^(.)(.*)$@s',$input,$match)){
     
$char=$match[1];
     
$rest=$match[2];
     
$outstr.=$byte_map[$char];
    }
   
$instr=$rest;
  }
  return
$outstr;
}

$byte_map=array();
init_byte_map();
$ascii_char='[\x00-\x7F]';
$cont_byte='[\x80-\xBF]';
$utf8_2='[\xC0-\xDF]'.$cont_byte;
$utf8_3='[\xE0-\xEF]'.$cont_byte.'{2}';
$utf8_4='[\xF0-\xF7]'.$cont_byte.'{3}';
$utf8_5='[\xF8-\xFB]'.$cont_byte.'{4}';
$nibble_good_chars = "@^($ascii_char+|$utf8_2|$utf8_3|$utf8_4|$utf8_5)(.*)$@s";

?>

Then just call fix_latin wherever you need it.
rabby
28-Apr-2009 02:59
there is a little auto-detect script for encodings which decides if it is necessary to utf8_encode or not. it can simply be modified to work with iso-8859-1 scripts, too, and decide if utf8_decode or not.
            preg_match('%^(?:
                [\x09\x0A\x0D\x20-\x7E]              # ASCII
                | [\xC2-\xDF][\x80-\xBF]             # non-overlong 2-byte
                |  \xE0[\xA0-\xBF][\x80-\xBF]        # excluding overlongs
                | [\xE1-\xEC\xEE\xEF][\x80-\xBF]{2}  # straight 3-byte
                |  \xED[\x80-\x9F][\x80-\xBF]        # excluding surrogates
                |  \xF0[\x90-\xBF][\x80-\xBF]{2}     # planes 1-3
                | [\xF1-\xF3][\x80-\xBF]{3}          # planes 4-15
                |  \xF4[\x80-\x8F][\x80-\xBF]{2}     # plane 16
                )*$%xs',
                $s)
As preg_match is a bit tricky with bigger strings $s, let me share the fixed function called autoencode: http://mobile-website.mobi/php-utf8-vs-iso-8859-1-59
bassam at saprinna dot com
27-Apr-2009 09:47
you can convert any encode to utf and save it to mysql from this function :

<?php
   
function convert_charset($item)
    {
        if (
$unserialize = unserialize($item))
        {
            foreach (
$unserialize as $key => $value)
            {
               
$unserialize[$key] = @iconv('windows-1256', 'UTF-8', $value);
            }
           
$serialize = serialize($unserialize);
            return
$serialize;
        }
        else
        {
            return @
iconv('windows-1256', 'UTF-8', $item);
        }
    }
?>
mrezair at azarbod dot com
23-Mar-2009 06:19
I found this little function very useful in fixing strings that are not in utf-8 but need be converted

<?php
// Fixes the encoding to uf8
function fixEncoding($in_str)
{
 
$cur_encoding = mb_detect_encoding($in_str) ;
  if(
$cur_encoding == "UTF-8" && mb_check_encoding($in_str,"UTF-8"))
    return
$in_str;
  else
    return
utf8_encode($in_str);
}
// fixEncoding
?>
dan at birminghampr dot co dot uk
19-Mar-2009 01:01
I use a function like this, rather than utf8_encode() alone, for fixing the encoding of unknown data, for example the contents of get_meta_tags():

<?php
function FixEncoding($x){
  if(
mb_detect_encoding($x)=='UTF-8'){
    return
$x;
  }else{
    return
utf8_encode($x);
  }
}
?>
rogeriogirodo at gmail dot com
19-Mar-2009 12:24
This function may be useful do encode array keys and values [and checks first to see if it's already in UTF format]:

<?php
public static function to_utf8($in)
{
        if (
is_array($in)) {
            foreach (
$in as $key => $value) {
               
$out[to_utf8($key)] = to_utf8($value);
            }
        } elseif(
is_string($in)) {
            if(
mb_detect_encoding($in) != "UTF-8")
                return
utf8_encode($in);
            else
                return
$in;
        } else {
            return
$in;
        }
        return
$out;
}
?>

Hope this may help.

[NOTE BY danbrown AT php DOT net: Original function written by (cmyk777 AT gmail DOT com) on 28-JAN-09.]
Julio Cesar
20-Jan-2009 01:08
With This Script you can convert a lot of files in
subfolders and convert to UTF8 without problems!

I thought about that when I was converting an eclipse
Project to UTF-8 and I loose all the Accentuation O.o

But with this script YOU WILL NOT! ;-)

I Make this based on Aidan Kehoe's Script and webmaster at
asylum-et dot com of http://www.php.net/scandir:

<?php
ini_set
("implicit_flush", "on");
ini_set("max_execution_time", 0);
ini_set("register_argc_argv", "on");
ini_set("html_errors", "Off");

function
cp1252_to_utf8($str) {
   
$cp1252_map = array ("\xc2\x80" => "\xe2\x82\xac",
   
"\xc2\x82" => "\xe2\x80\x9a",
   
"\xc2\x83" => "\xc6\x92",    
   
"\xc2\x84" => "\xe2\x80\x9e",
   
"\xc2\x85" => "\xe2\x80\xa6",
   
"\xc2\x86" => "\xe2\x80\xa0",
   
"\xc2\x87" => "\xe2\x80\xa1",
   
"\xc2\x88" => "\xcb\x86",
   
"\xc2\x89" => "\xe2\x80\xb0",
   
"\xc2\x8a" => "\xc5\xa0",
   
"\xc2\x8b" => "\xe2\x80\xb9",
   
"\xc2\x8c" => "\xc5\x92",
   
"\xc2\x8e" => "\xc5\xbd",
   
"\xc2\x91" => "\xe2\x80\x98",
   
"\xc2\x92" => "\xe2\x80\x99",
   
"\xc2\x93" => "\xe2\x80\x9c",
   
"\xc2\x94" => "\xe2\x80\x9d",
   
"\xc2\x95" => "\xe2\x80\xa2",
   
"\xc2\x96" => "\xe2\x80\x93",
   
"\xc2\x97" => "\xe2\x80\x94",

   
"\xc2\x98" => "\xcb\x9c",
   
"\xc2\x99" => "\xe2\x84\xa2",
   
"\xc2\x9a" => "\xc5\xa1",
   
"\xc2\x9b" => "\xe2\x80\xba",
   
"\xc2\x9c" => "\xc5\x93",
   
"\xc2\x9e" => "\xc5\xbe",
   
"\xc2\x9f" => "\xc5\xb8"
);
    return
strtr ( utf8_encode ( $str ), $cp1252_map );
}
function
rscandir($base="", &$data=array()) {
 
 
$array = array_diff(scandir($base), array(".", ".."));
 
  foreach(
$array as $value) :
 
    if (
is_dir($base.$value)) :
     
//$data[] = $base.$value."/";
     
$data = rscandir($base.$value."/", $data);
    
    elseif (
is_file($base.$value) &&
!
eregi(".jpg|.gif|.png|.ttf|.dataModel|.wsdlDataModel
|.project|.jsdtscope|.prefs|.name|.container|
.exe|.bat|.cmd|.src|.dll|.ini|.swf|.fla|.bmp\$"
,
$value)) : /* where you put the unwanted extensions  */
   
echo "Converting to UTF8 " . $base.$value . "\r\n"
  
file_put_contents(
       
$base.$value,
           
cp1252_to_utf8(
           
file_get_contents($base.$value)));

    
    endif;
  
  endforeach;
 
  return
$data;
 
}
echo
"Type a Folder (With a Slash in end): ";
$folder = trim(fgets(STDIN));

rscandir($folder);

?>

You can put this on windows Dir and put a Batch like this:

@echo off
php -n C:\windows\ConvertUTF8.php
pause

So you can convert your files from any where, just type on
Execute Command Like: ConvertFilesToUTF8

I think this will help everyone! Enjoy ;-)

P.s: I remove the comments becouse the wordwrap
bitseeker
22-Sep-2008 09:07
...or just use this simple piece of code to check valid utf-8 string:

<?php
   
/**
     * Returns true if $string is valid UTF-8 and false otherwise.
     *
     * @since        1.14
     * @param [mixed] $string     string to be tested
     * @subpackage
     */
   
function is_utf8($string) {
      
       
// From http://w3.org/International/questions/qa-forms-utf-8.html
       
return preg_match('%^(?:
              [\x09\x0A\x0D\x20-\x7E]            # ASCII
            | [\xC2-\xDF][\x80-\xBF]             # non-overlong 2-byte
            |  \xE0[\xA0-\xBF][\x80-\xBF]        # excluding overlongs
            | [\xE1-\xEC\xEE\xEF][\x80-\xBF]{2}  # straight 3-byte
            |  \xED[\x80-\x9F][\x80-\xBF]        # excluding surrogates
            |  \xF0[\x90-\xBF][\x80-\xBF]{2}     # planes 1-3
            | [\xF1-\xF3][\x80-\xBF]{3}          # planes 4-15
            |  \xF4[\x80-\x8F][\x80-\xBF]{2}     # plane 16
        )*$%xs'
, $string);
      
    }
?>
hmdker at gmail dot com
24-Aug-2008 04:49
Here's my is_utf8 function, to detect valid UTF-8 text.

<?php
function is_utf8($str) {
   
$c=0; $b=0;
   
$bits=0;
   
$len=strlen($str);
    for(
$i=0; $i<$len; $i++){
       
$c=ord($str[$i]);
        if (
$c >= 128) {
            if((
$c >= 254)) return false;
            elseif(
$c >= 252) $bits=6;
            elseif(
$c >= 248) $bits=5;
            elseif(
$c >= 240) $bits=4;
            elseif(
$c >= 224) $bits=3;
            elseif(
$c >= 192) $bits=2;
            else return
false;
            if((
$i+$bits) > $len) return false;
            while(
$bits > 1){
               
$i++;
               
$b=ord($str[$i]);
                if(
$b < 128 || $b > 191) return false;
               
$bits--;
            }
        }
    }
    return
true;
}

?>

[NOTE BY danbrown AT php DOT net: Contains a bugfix supplied by "svenmika" on 09-JUL-09 with the following note: "A value of exactly 128 (binary 10000000) in the first byte of a character is invalid."]
akam
30-Jun-2008 02:14
<?php
// Author akam at akameng dot com
// Support 6 bit
function UTF_to_Unicode($input, $array=False) {

 
$bit1  = pow(64, 0);
 
$bit2  = pow(64, 1);
 
$bit3  = pow(64, 2);
 
$bit4  = pow(64, 3);
 
$bit5  = pow(64, 4);
 
$bit6  = pow(64, 5);
 
 
$value = '';
 
$val   = array();
 
 for(
$i=0; $i< strlen( $input ); $i++){
 
    
$ints = ord ( $input[$i] );
    
    
$z     = ord ( $input[$i] );
    
$y     = ord ( $input[$i+1] ) - 128;
    
$x     = ord ( $input[$i+2] ) - 128;
    
$w     = ord ( $input[$i+3] ) - 128;
    
$v     = ord ( $input[$i+4] ) - 128;
    
$u     = ord ( $input[$i+5] ) - 128;

     if(
$ints >= 0 && $ints <= 127 ){
       
// 1 bit
       
$value .= '&#'.($z * $bit1).';';
       
$val[]  = $value;
     }
     if(
$ints >= 192 && $ints <= 223 ){
       
// 2 bit
       
$value .= '&#'.(($z-192) * $bit2 + $y * $bit1).';';
       
$val[]  = $value;
     }   
     if(
$ints >= 224 && $ints <= 239 ){
       
// 3 bit
       
$value .= '&#'.(($z-224) * $bit3 + $y * $bit2 + $x * $bit1).';';
       
$val[]  = $value;
     }    
     if(
$ints >= 240 && $ints <= 247 ){
       
// 4 bit
       
$value .= '&#'.(($z-240) * $bit4 + $y * $bit3 +
$x * $bit2 + $w * $bit1).';';
       
$val[]  = $value;       
     }    
     if(
$ints >= 248 && $ints <= 251 ){
       
// 5 bit
       
$value .= '&#'.(($z-248) * $bit5 + $y * $bit4
+ $x * $bit3 + $w * $bit2 + $v * $bit1).';';
       
$val[]  = $value;  
     }
     if(
$ints == 252 && $ints == 253 ){
       
// 6 bit
       
$value .= '&#'.(($z-252) * $bit6 + $y * $bit5
+ $x * $bit4 + $w * $bit3 + $v * $bit2 + $u * $bit1).';';
       
$val[]  = $value;
     }
     if(
$ints == 254 || $ints == 255 ){
       echo
'Wrong Result!<br>';
     }
    
 }
 
 if(
$array === False ){
    return
$unicode = $value;
 }
 if(
$array === True ){
    
$val     = str_replace('&#', '', $value);
    
$val     = explode(';', $val);
    
$len = count($val);
     unset(
$val[$len-1]);
    
     return
$unicode = $val;
 }
 
}

 
function
Unicode_to_UTF( $input, $array=TRUE){

    
$utf = '';
    if(!
is_array($input)){
      
$input     = str_replace('&#', '', $input);
      
$input     = explode(';', $input);
      
$len = count($input);
       unset(
$input[$len-1]);
    }
    for(
$i=0; $i < count($input); $i++){
   
    if (
$input[$i] <128 ){
      
$byte1 = $input[$i];
      
$utf  .= chr($byte1);
    }
    if (
$input[$i] >=128 && $input[$i] <=2047 ){
   
      
$byte1 = 192 + (int)($input[$i] / 64);
      
$byte2 = 128 + ($input[$i] % 64);
      
$utf  .= chr($byte1).chr($byte2);
    }
    if (
$input[$i] >=2048 && $input[$i] <=65535){
   
      
$byte1 = 224 + (int)($input[$i] / 4096);
      
$byte2 = 128 + ((int)($input[$i] / 64) % 64);
      
$byte3 = 128 + ($input[$i] % 64);
      
      
$utf  .= chr($byte1).chr($byte2).chr($byte3);
    }
    if (
$input[$i] >=65536 && $input[$i] <=2097151){
   
      
$byte1 = 240 + (int)($input[$i] / 262144);
      
$byte2 = 128 + ((int)($input[$i] / 4096) % 64);
      
$byte3 = 128 + ((int)($input[$i] / 64) % 64);
      
$byte4 = 128 + ($input[$i] % 64);
      
$utf  .= chr($byte1).chr($byte2).chr($byte3).
chr($byte4);
    }
    if (
$input[$i] >=2097152 && $input[$i] <=67108863){
   
      
$byte1 = 248 + (int)($input[$i] / 16777216);
      
$byte2 = 128 + ((int)($input[$i] / 262144) % 64);
      
$byte3 = 128 + ((int)($input[$i] / 4096) % 64);
      
$byte4 = 128 + ((int)($input[$i] / 64) % 64);
      
$byte5 = 128 + ($input[$i] % 64);
      
$utf  .= chr($byte1).chr($byte2).chr($byte3).
chr($byte4).chr($byte5);
    }
    if (
$input[$i] >=67108864 && $input[$i] <=2147483647){
   
      
$byte1 = 252 + ($input[$i] / 1073741824);
      
$byte2 = 128 + (($input[$i] / 16777216) % 64);
      
$byte3 = 128 + (($input[$i] / 262144) % 64);
      
$byte4 = 128 + (($input[$i] / 4096) % 64);
      
$byte5 = 128 + (($input[$i] / 64) % 64);
      
$byte6 = 128 + ($input[$i] % 64);
      
$utf  .= chr($byte1).chr($byte2).chr($byte3).
chr($byte4).chr($byte5).chr($byte6);
    }
   }
   return
$utf;
}
?>
www.tricinty.com
11-Jun-2008 10:43
<?php
   
/**
    * Encodes an ISO-8859-1 mixed variable to UTF-8 (PHP 4, PHP 5 compat)
    * @param    mixed    $input An array, associative or simple
    * @param    boolean  $encode_keys optional
    * @return    mixed     ( utf-8 encoded $input)
    */

   
function utf8_encode_mix($input, $encode_keys=false)
    {
        if(
is_array($input))
        {
           
$result = array();
            foreach(
$input as $k => $v)
            {               
               
$key = ($encode_keys)? utf8_encode($k) : $k;
               
$result[$key] = utf8_encode_mix( $v, $encode_keys);
            }
        }
        else
        {
           
$result = utf8_encode($input);
        }

        return
$result;
    }
?>
klein at buchung-24 dot de
04-Jun-2008 11:22
IF you don�_t use the function from ethan dot nelson at ltd dot org in a class, you�_ll get an error, so please try

function utf_prepare(&$array)
{
    foreach($array AS $key => &$value)
    {
        if (is_array($value))
        {
            utf_prepare($value);
        } else
        {
            $value = utf8_encode($value);
        }
    }
}
www.qaiser.net
17-Apr-2008 02:56
that isUTF8 function is a killer...

wouldn't something like

if ( preg_match( "~(\x00[\x80-\xff]|[\x00-\x07][\x00-\xff]~", $string ) ) { /* is utf */ };

be a lot more efficient? it doesn't take into account all the ranges, but it has to be a better method and a simple start since it'll quit on the first successful match. think of encoding and decoding a 1mb string--not good. i'm having to work with +20 meg xml files.
renardo13 at free dot fr
01-Apr-2008 12:56
another nice way to implement an isUTF8 function ...

<?php

function isUTF8($string)
{
    return (
utf8_encode(utf8_decode($string)) == $string);
}

?>
tacchete at gmail dot com
13-Dec-2007 12:35
Known problem with Byte Order Mark (BOM) and header() in pages of a site.

For example at sending headings or to a dynamic conclusion in other coding distinct from UTF-8 by means of XSLT (<xsl:output encoding="windows-1251"/>).

To clean all symbols BOM from the text of page:

1. exclude BOM from the main file;
2. write down function of a return call for the buffer

<?php
header
('content-type: text/html; charset: utf-8');
ob_start('ob');
function
ob($buffer)
{
    return
str_replace("\xef\xbb\xbf", '', $buffer);
}
?>

it will exclude BOM from a code of the connected files;
3. do not experience for BOM in connected files;
4. be pleased.
ethan dot nelson at ltd dot org
07-Nov-2007 01:41
This does the same thing as some of the posts below (minus the keys), but I thought I'd share anyway cause it is slightly more elegant.  Also, its a good example using references such that this could be used as a callback function.

  function utf_prepare(&$array) {

    foreach($array AS $key => &$value) {

      if (is_array($value)) {
        $this->utf_prepare($value);
      } else {
        $value = utf8_encode($value);
      }

    }

  }
luka8088 at gmail dot com
22-Jun-2007 02:19
simple HTML to UTF-8 conversion:

function html_to_utf8 ($data)
    {
    return preg_replace("/\\&\\#([0-9]{3,10})\\;/e", '_html_to_utf8("\\1")', $data);
    }

function _html_to_utf8 ($data)
    {
    if ($data > 127)
        {
        $i = 5;
        while (($i--) > 0)
            {
            if ($data != ($a = $data % ($p = pow(64, $i))))
                {
                $ret = chr(base_convert(str_pad(str_repeat(1, $i + 1), 8, "0"), 2, 10) + (($data - $a) / $p));
                for ($i; $i > 0; $i--)
                    $ret .= chr(128 + ((($data % pow(64, $i)) - ($data % ($p = pow(64, $i - 1)))) / $p));
                break;
                }
            }
        }
        else
        $ret = "&#$data;";
    return $ret;
    }

Example:
echo html_to_utf8("a b &#269; &#263; &#382; &#12371; &#12395; &#12385; &#12431; ()[]{}!#$?* &lt; &#62;");

Output:
a b �_ �+ �_ �_" �_< �_� �'_ ()[]{}!#$?* &lt; &#62;
hillar dot petersen at gmail dot com
30-May-2007 05:59
In addition to my previous post. If your values are already in utf-8 maybe you want to utf8_encode array keys only. This will do it:

<?php
/**
 * (Recursively) utf8_encode all array keys.
 *
 * @param array $array
 * @return array with utf8_encoded keys
 */

function utf8_encode_array_keys($array)
{
 
$array_type = array_type($array);

  if (
$array_type == "map")
  {
   
$result_array = array();

    foreach(
$array as $key => $value)
    {
      if (
is_array($value))
      {
       
// recursion
       
$result_array[utf8_encode($key)] = utf8_encode_array_keys($value);
      }
      else
      {
       
// value is not an array, no recursion
       
$result_array[utf8_encode($key)] = $value;
      }
    }
   
    return
$result_array;
  }

  else if (
$array_type == "vector")
  {
   
// do not encode anything, just follow the value if it is an array
   
$result_array = array();
   
    foreach (
$array as $key => $value)
    {
      if (
is_array($value))
      {
       
// recursion
       
$result_array[$key] = utf8_encode_array_keys($value);
      }
      else
      {
       
// value is not an array, no recursion
       
$result_array[$key] = $value;
      }
    }
   
    return
$result_array;
  }

  return
false;     // argument is not an array, return false
}
?>

Also note that both this operation (with keys only) and the operation with both keys and values can be reversed by replacing "encode" by "decode".
hillar dot petersen at gmail dot com
29-May-2007 02:06
If you are interested in recursively converting ISO-8859-1-encoded arrays into UTF-8, then this is one way to do it. Could use a small refactor though. (I used it to prepare some ISO-8859-1 arrays for json_encode. Note that for this to work your values and for associative arrays also your keys must be ISO-8859-1-encoded.)

<?php
/**
 * (Recursively) utf8_encode each value in an array.
 *
 * @param array $array
 * @return array utf8_encoded
 */

function utf8_encode_array($array)
{
  if (
is_array($array))
  {
   
$result_array = array();

    foreach(
$array as $key => $value)
    {

      if (
array_type($array) == "map")
      {
       
// encode both key and value

       
if (is_array($value))
        {
         
// recursion
         
$result_array[utf8_encode($key)] = utf8_encode_array($value);
        }
        else
        {
         
// no recursion
         
if (is_string($value))
          {
           
$result_array[utf8_encode($key)] = utf8_encode($value);
          }
          else
          {
           
// do not re-encode non-strings, just copy data
           
$result_array[utf8_encode($key)] = $value;
          }

        }

      }

      else if (
array_type($array) == "vector")
      {
       
// encode value only
       
       
if (is_array($value))
        {
         
// recursion
         
$result_array[$key] = utf8_encode_array($value);
        }
        else
        {
         
// no recursion
         
         
if (is_string($value))
          {
           
$result_array[$key] = utf8_encode($value);
          }
          else
          {
           
// do not re-encode non-strings, just copy data
           
$result_array[$key] = $value;
          }

        }

      }

    }

    return
$result_array;
  }

  return
false;     // argument is not an array, return false
}

/**
 * Determines array type ("vector" or "map"). Returns false if not an array at all.
 * (I hope a native function will be introduced in some future release of PHP, because
 * this check is inefficient and quite costly in worst case scenario.)
 *
 * @param array $array The array to analyze
 * @return string array type ("vector" or "map") or false if not an array
 */

function array_type($array)
{
  if (
is_array($array))
  {
   
$next = 0;

   
$return_value = "vector" // we have a vector until proved otherwise

   
foreach ($array as $key => $value)
    {

      if (
$key != $next)
      {
       
$return_value = "map" // we have a map
       
break;
      }

     
$next++;
    }
   
    return
$return_value;
  }

  return
false;    // not array
}
?>
nikooo adog bk adot ru - Nickolaz
03-May-2007 02:02
You can use this simple code to convert win-1251 into Unicode.

    function rus2uni($str,$isTo = true)
    {
        $arr = array('�''=>'&#x451;','�_'=>'&#x401;');
        for($i=192;$i<256;$i++)
            $arr[chr($i)] = '&#x4'.dechex($i-176).';';
        $str =preg_replace(array('@([а-�_]) @i','@ ([а-�_])@i'),array('$1&#x0a0;','&#x0a0;$1'),$str);
        return strtr($str,$isTo?$arr:array_flip($arr));
    }

That is useful for xml_parser (to parse windows-1251 files like utf-8).
18-Apr-2007 04:06
I just read what I wrote, sorry for the typos it was a long day:

here's the rewritten code:

xml_tpl.php
<?php
    header
("Content-Type: text/html;charset=ISO-8859-1");
    print
"<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"UTF-8\" ?>\n";
   
$names=array('jack','bob','vanessa','catherine','valerie');
?>
<parent>
<?php foreach($names as $name) {?>
    <child name="<?php print $name?>" />
<?php } ?>
</parent>

<?php
function create_xml(){
   
ob_start();
    include
"xml_tpl.php";
   
$trapped_content=ob_get_contents();
   
ob_end_clean();
   
$file_path= "./somefile.xml";
   
$file_handle=fopen($file_path,'w');
   
fwrite($file_handle,utf8_encode($trapped_content));
}

?>
penda ekoka
17-Apr-2007 06:15
creating utf-8 xml files:
this is something that has wasted a lot of my time, I hope this will spare you the headaches:

my method consists of creating an xml template that will look like this (this is probably optional, I'm sure you can use good ol' print or echo statements):

xml_tpl.php
<?php
header
("Content-Type: text/html;charset=ISO-8859-1");
print
"<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"UTF-8\" ?>\n";
$names=array('jack','bob','vanessa','catherine','valerie');
?>
<parent>
<?php foreach($names as $name) {?>
    <child name="<?php print $name?>" />
<?php } ?>
</parent>
?>

from a function or a method I include the previous template and trap the outputted content in an output buffer. The buffured content is then inserted into a file:

<?php
function create_xml(){
   
ob_start();
    include
"xml_php.php";
   
$trapped_content=ob_get_contents();
   
ob_end_clean();
   
$file_path= "./somefile.xml";
   
$file_handle=fopen($somefile,'w');
   
fwrite($file_handle,utf8_encode($trapped_content));
}

?>

Some side notes:
- note that the utf8_encode function goes inside the fwrite() function.
- when troubleshooting, make sure to transfer text file (xml included) and scripts in ascii mode when using ftp. For some unknown reason my ftp client did not have xml set as an ascii transfer candidate and was automatically tranfering them in binary. That little "feature" ended up costing me hours of frustration, as the encoding information would just "vanish" between transfer and I kept scratching my head as to why manually created utf8 files were not behaving as they should.
28-Mar-2007 10:07
<?php

function unicon($str, $to_uni = true) {
   
$cp = Array (
       
"�_" => "&#x410;", "а" => "&#x430;",
       
"�'" => "&#x411;", "�+" => "&#x431;",
       
"�'" => "&#x412;", "�_" => "&#x432;",
       
"�"" => "&#x413;", "�_" => "&#x433;",
       
"�"" => "&#x414;", "�_" => "&#x434;",
       
"�" => "&#x415;", "��" => "&#x435;",
       
"�_" => "&#x401;", "�'" => "&#x451;",
       
"�-" => "&#x416;", "�" => "&#x436;",
       
"�-" => "&#x417;", "з" => "&#x437;",
       
"�_" => "&#x418;", "и" => "&#x438;",
       
"�T" => "&#x419;", "й" => "&#x439;",
       
"�_" => "&#x41A;", "к" => "&#x43A;",
       
"�>" => "&#x41B;", "�>" => "&#x43B;",
       
"�_" => "&#x41C;", "�_" => "&#x43C;",
       
"�_" => "&#x41D;", "�_" => "&#x43D;",
       
"�_" => "&#x41E;", "�_" => "&#x43E;",
       
"�_" => "&#x41F;", "п" => "&#x43F;",
       
"Р" => "&#x420;", "�_" => "&#x440;",
       
"С" => "&#x421;", "�_" => "&#x441;",
       
"Т" => "&#x422;", "�'" => "&#x442;",
       
"�_" => "&#x423;", "�_" => "&#x443;",
       
"Ф" => "&#x424;", "�"" => "&#x444;",
       
"�_" => "&#x425;", "�:" => "&#x445;",
       
"Ц" => "&#x426;", "�+" => "&#x446;",
       
"�" => "&#x427;", "�+" => "&#x447;",
       
"Ш" => "&#x428;", "�_" => "&#x448;",
       
"�c" => "&#x429;", "�%" => "&#x449;",
       
"Ъ" => "&#x42A;", "�_" => "&#x44A;",
       
"�<" => "&#x42B;", "�<" => "&#x44B;",
       
"Ь" => "&#x42C;", "�_" => "&#x44C;",
       
"�-" => "&#x42D;", "�_" => "&#x44D;",
       
"�R" => "&#x42E;", "�_" => "&#x44E;",
       
"Я" => "&#x42F;", "�_" => "&#x44F;"
   
);
   
    if (
$to_uni) {
       
$str = strtr($str, $cp);
    } else {
        foreach (
$cp as $c) {
           
$cpp[$c] = array_search($c, $cp);
        }
       
$str = strtr($str, $cpp);
    }
   
    return
$str;
}

?>
emze at donazga dot net
17-Dec-2006 05:42
/*
Every function seen so far is incomplete or resource consumpting. Here are two -- integer 2 utf sequence (i3u) and utf sequence to integer (u3i). Below is a code snippet that checks well behavior at the range boundaries.

Someday they might be hardcoded into PHP...
*/

function i3u($i) { // returns UCS-16 or UCS-32 to UTF-8 from an integer
  $i=(int)$i; // integer?
  if ($i<0) return false; // positive?
  if ($i<=0x7f) return chr($i); // range 0
  if (($i & 0x7fffffff) <> $i) return '?'; // 31 bit?
  if ($i<=0x7ff) return chr(0xc0 | ($i >> 6)) . chr(0x80 | ($i & 0x3f));
  if ($i<=0xffff) return chr(0xe0 | ($i >> 12)) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 6) & 0x3f)
      . chr(0x80  | $i & 0x3f);
  if ($i<=0x1fffff) return chr(0xf0 | ($i >> 18)) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 12) & 0x3f)
      . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 6) & 0x3f) . chr(0x80  | $i & 0x3f);
  if ($i<=0x3ffffff) return chr(0xf8 | ($i >> 24)) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 18) & 0x3f)
      . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 12) & 0x3f) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 6) & 0x3f) . chr(0x80  | $i & 0x3f);
  return chr(0xfc | ($i >> 30)) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 24) & 0x3f) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 18) & 0x3f)
      . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 12) & 0x3f) . chr(0x80 | ($i >> 6) & 0x3f) . chr(0x80  | $i & 0x3f);
}

function u3i($s,$strict=1) { // returns integer on valid UTF-8 seq, NULL on empty, else FALSE
  // NOT strict: takes only DATA bits, present or not; strict: length and bits checking
  if ($s=='') return NULL;
  $l=strlen($s); $o=ord($s{0});
  if ($o <= 0x7f && $l==1) return $o;
  if ($l>6 && $strict) return false;
  if ($strict) for ($i=1;$i<$l;$i++) if (ord($s{$i}) > 0xbf || ord($s{$i})< 0x80) return false;
  if ($o < 0xc2) return false; // no-go even if strict=0
  if ($o <= 0xdf && ($l=2 && $strict)) return (($o & 0x1f) << 6 | (ord($s{1}) & 0x3f));
  if ($o <= 0xef && ($l=3 && $strict)) return (($o & 0x0f) << 12 | (ord($s{1}) & 0x3f) << 6
     |  (ord($s{2}) & 0x3f));
  if ($o <= 0xf7 && ($l=4 && $strict)) return (($o & 0x07) << 18 | (ord($s{1}) & 0x3f) << 12
     | (ord($s{2}) & 0x3f) << 6 |  (ord($s{3}) & 0x3f));
  if ($o <= 0xfb && ($l=5 && $strict)) return (($o & 0x03) << 24 | (ord($s{1}) & 0x3f) << 18
     | (ord($s{2}) & 0x3f) << 12 | (ord($s{3}) & 0x3f) << 6 |  (ord($s{4}) & 0x3f));
  if ($o <= 0xfd && ($l=6 && $strict)) return (($o & 0x01) << 30 | (ord($s{1}) & 0x3f) << 24
     | (ord($s{2}) & 0x3f) << 18 | (ord($s{3}) & 0x3f) << 12
     | (ord($s{4}) & 0x3f) << 6 |  (ord($s{5}) & 0x3f));
  return false;
}

// boundary behavior checking
$do=array(0x7f,0x7ff,0xffff,0x1fffff,0x3ffffff,0x7fffffff);
foreach ($do as $ii) for ($i=$ii;$i<=$ii+1; $i++) {
  $o=i3u($i);
  for ($j=0;$j<strlen($o);$j++) print "O[$j]=" . sprintf('%08b',ord($o{$j})) . ", ";
  print "c=$i, o=[$o].\n";
  print "Back: [$o] => [" . u3i($o) . "]\n";
}
sadikkeskin at hotmail dot com
21-Nov-2006 10:49
i wrote a function to convert encoding utf8 to iso-8859-9. This function is very useful if you want to use this for ajax.
you can apply same way for other languages.
<?
function str_encode ($string,$to="iso-8859-9",$from="utf8") {
    if(
$to=="iso-8859-9" && $from=="utf8"){
       
$str_array = array(
      
chr(196).chr(177) => chr(253),
      
chr(196).chr(176) => chr(221),
      
chr(195).chr(182) => chr(246),
      
chr(195).chr(150) => chr(214),
      
chr(195).chr(167) => chr(231),
      
chr(195).chr(135) => chr(199),
      
chr(197).chr(159) => chr(254),
      
chr(197).chr(158) => chr(222),
      
chr(196).chr(159) => chr(240),
      
chr(196).chr(158) => chr(208),
      
chr(195).chr(188) => chr(252),
      
chr(195).chr(156) => chr(220)
       );
       return
str_replace(array_keys($str_array), array_values($str_array), $string);
   
    }   
    return
$string;
}
?>
genert at adsuk dot com
01-Oct-2006 05:23
If you encoded data with utf8_encode function and you would like to decode it in javascript use library found here: http://www.webtoolkit.info/. There is encoder too.
27-Sep-2006 08:30
In reply to Cundle:

Note: The BOM is completely unnecessary in UTF-8. UTF-8 is interpreted the same way regardless of endianness, e.g. �> (U+039B, GREEK CAPITAL LETTER LAMDA) is represented as the octets 0xCE, 0x9B, always in that order.

Extra note: UTF-16 and UCS-2 are different. The same letter would be encoded as 0x03 0x9B on big-endian (e.g. Motorola) architecture, but 0x9B 0x03 on little-endian (e.g Intel) architecture.

But in any case, there's nothing wrong with putting a BOM at the beginning of a UTF-8 encoded file. It is just treated as U+FEFF Zero Width No-Break Space.
James Cundle
18-Jul-2006 02:33
I had some difficulty finding a way to easily write UTF-8 files with the byte order mark included. This is the simple solution I have come up with:

<?php
function writeUTF8File($filename,$content) {
       
$dhandle=fopen($filename,"w");
       
# Now UTF-8 - Add byte order mark
       
fwrite($dhandle, pack("CCC",0xef,0xbb,0xbf));
       
fwrite($dhandle,$content);
       
fclose($dhandle);
}
?>

When you read the file back in using fopen, the BOM will also be there. To remove it, I also wrote the following function:

<?php
function removeBOM($str=""){
        if(
substr($str, 0,3) == pack("CCC",0xef,0xbb,0xbf)) {
               
$str=substr($str, 3);
        }
        return
$str;
}
?>
rocketman
16-Mar-2006 12:46
If you are looking for a function to replace special characters with the hex-utf-8 value (e.g. f�_r Webservice-Security/WSS4J compliancy) you might use this:

$textstart = "Gr��_e";
$utf8 ='';
$max = strlen($txt);

for ($i = 0; $i < $max; $i++) {

if ($txt{i} == "&"){
$neu = "&x26;";
}
elseif ((ord($txt{$i}) < 32) or (ord($txt{$i}) > 127)){
$neu = urlencode(utf8_encode($txt{$i}));
$neu = preg_replace('#\%(..)\%(..)\%(..)#','&#x\1;&#x\2;&#x\3;',$neu);
$neu = preg_replace('#\%(..)\%(..)#','&#x\1;&#x\2;',$neu);
$neu = preg_replace('#\%(..)#','&#x\1;',$neu);
}
else {
$neu = $txt{$i};
}
       
$utf8 .= $neu;
} // for $i

$textnew = $utf8;

In this example $textnew will be "Gr&#xC3;&#xB6;&#xC3;&#x9F;e"
mailing at jcn50 dot com
21-Jan-2006 06:40
I recommend using this alternative for every language:

$new=mb_convert_encoding($s,"UTF-8","auto");

Don't forget to set all your pages to "utf-8" encoding, otherwise just use HTML entities.

jcn50.
migueldiaz at gennio dot com
14-Dec-2005 05:23
Here's my function to know if one string is encoded in UTF8.

If we encode in UTF8 a string or text file that is already encoded in UTF8, it's expected to find the character '_' ( ALT+159)  in the final string.

<?php

function isUTF8($string)
{
   
$string_utf8 = utf8_encode($string);
    if(
strpos($string_utf8,"_",0) !== false ) // "_" is ALT+159
        
return true // the original string was utf8
   
else
         return
false; // otherwise
}

?>

regards
Miguel D�az
04-Nov-2005 10:34
// Reads a file story.txt ascii (as typed on keyboard)
// converts it to Georgian character using utf8 encoding
// if I am correct(?) just as it should be when typed on Georgian computer
// it outputs it as an html file
//
// http://www.comweb.nl/keys_to_georgian.html
// http://www.comweb.nl/keys_to_georgian.php
// http://www.comweb.nl/story.txt

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">

<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>keys to unicode code</TITLE>

// this meta tag is needed
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" >

// note the sylfean font seems to be standard installed on Windows XP
// It supports Georgian
 
<style TYPE="text/css">
<!--
body {font-family:sylfaen; }
-->
</style>
</HEAD>

<BODY>

<?
$eng
=array(97,98,99,100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,
112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,87,82,84,83,
67,74,90);
$geo=array(4304,4305,4330,4307,4308,4324,4306,4336,4312,4335,4313,
4314,4315,4316,4317,4318,4325,4320,4321,4322,4323,4309,
4332,4334,4327,4310,4333,4326,4311,4328,4329,4319,4331,
91,93,59,39,44,46,96);

$fc=file("story.txt");
foreach(
$fc as $line)
{
  
$spacestart=1;
   for (
$i=0; $i<strlen($line); $i+=1)
   {
     
$character=ord(substr($line,$i,1));
     
$found=0;
      for (
$k=0; $k<count($eng); $k+=1)
      {
         if (
$eng[$k]==$character)
         {
             print
code2utf( $geo[$k] );
            
$found=1;
         }
      }
      if (
$found==0)
      {
         if (
$character==126 || $character==32 || $character==10 || $character==9)
         {
            if (
$character==9)  { print '&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;'; }
            if (
$character==10) { print "<BR>\n"; }
            if (
$character==32)
            {
               if (
$spacestart==1) {print '&nbsp;'; } else { print " "; }
            }
            if (
$character==126){ print "~";      }
         } else
         {
            print
substr($line,$i,1);
         }
      }
      if (
$character!=32) { $spacestart=0; }
   }
}

/**
 * Function coverts number of utf char into that character.
 * Function taken from: http://sk2.php.net/manual/en/function.utf8-encode.php#49336
 *
 * @param int $num
 * @return utf8char
*/
function code2utf($num)
{
   if(
$num<128)return chr($num);
   if(
$num<2048)return chr(($num>>6)+192).chr(($num&63)+128);
   if(
$num<65536)return chr(($num>>12)+224).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128).chr(($num&63)+128);
   if(
$num<2097152)return chr(($num>>18)+240).chr((($num>>12)&63)+128).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128) .chr(($num&63)+128);
   return
'';
}
?>

</BODY>
</HTML>
Janci
04-Nov-2005 12:00
I was searching for a function similar to Javascript's unescape(). In most cases it is OK to use url_decode() function but not if you've got UTF characters in the strings. They are converted into %uXXXX entities that url_decode() cannot handle.
I googled the net and found a function which actualy converts these entities into HTML entities (&#xxx;) that your browser can show correctly. If you're OK with that, the function can be found here: http://pure-essence.net/stuff/code/utf8RawUrlDecode.phps

But it was not OK with me because I needed a string in my charset to make some comparations and other stuff. So I have modified the above function and in conjuction with code2utf() function mentioned in some other note here, I have managed to achieve my goal:

<?php
/**
 * Function converts an Javascript escaped string back into a string with specified charset (default is UTF-8).
 * Modified function from http://pure-essence.net/stuff/code/utf8RawUrlDecode.phps
 *
 * @param string $source escaped with Javascript's escape() function
 * @param string $iconv_to destination character set will be used as second paramether in the iconv function. Default is UTF-8.
 * @return string
 */
function unescape($source, $iconv_to = 'UTF-8') {
   
$decodedStr = '';
   
$pos = 0;
   
$len = strlen ($source);
    while (
$pos < $len) {
       
$charAt = substr ($source, $pos, 1);
        if (
$charAt == '%') {
           
$pos++;
           
$charAt = substr ($source, $pos, 1);
            if (
$charAt == 'u') {
               
// we got a unicode character
               
$pos++;
               
$unicodeHexVal = substr ($source, $pos, 4);
               
$unicode = hexdec ($unicodeHexVal);
               
$decodedStr .= code2utf($unicode);
               
$pos += 4;
            }
            else {
               
// we have an escaped ascii character
               
$hexVal = substr ($source, $pos, 2);
               
$decodedStr .= chr (hexdec ($hexVal));
               
$pos += 2;
            }
        }
        else {
           
$decodedStr .= $charAt;
           
$pos++;
        }
    }

    if (
$iconv_to != "UTF-8") {
       
$decodedStr = iconv("UTF-8", $iconv_to, $decodedStr);
    }
   
    return
$decodedStr;
}

/**
 * Function coverts number of utf char into that character.
 * Function taken from: http://sk2.php.net/manual/en/function.utf8-encode.php#49336
 *
 * @param int $num
 * @return utf8char
 */
function code2utf($num){
    if(
$num<128)return chr($num);
    if(
$num<2048)return chr(($num>>6)+192).chr(($num&63)+128);
    if(
$num<65536)return chr(($num>>12)+224).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128).chr(($num&63)+128);
    if(
$num<2097152)return chr(($num>>18)+240).chr((($num>>12)&63)+128).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128) .chr(($num&63)+128);
    return
'';
}
?>
aktionimskript at gmx dot net
01-Sep-2005 03:52
if you want to put variables as parameter in a flashfile, i prefer using to convert the string with utf8_encode() [or preg_replace, or iconv] and after this i encode it with urlencode();

<?php
     $yourstring
="yourstring";
    
$str_utf8=utf8_encode($yourstring);
    
$str_encoded=urlencode($str_utf8);
     echo
"<script language='javascript'>";
     echo
"parameterForFlash='".$str_encoded."';";
     echo
"</script>";
?>

now you can use the variable (parameterForFlash) in your javascript (plugindetection), that writes the flash object/embed.
suttichai at ceforce dot com
28-May-2005 07:26
This function I use convert Thai font (iso-8859-11) to UTF-8. For my case, It work properly. Please try to use this function if you have a problem to convert charset iso-8859-11 to UTF-8.

function iso8859_11toUTF8($string) {
 
     if ( ! ereg("[\241-\377]", $string) )
         return $string;
 
     $iso8859_11 = array(
"\xa1" => "\xe0\xb8\x81",
"\xa2" => "\xe0\xb8\x82",
"\xa3" => "\xe0\xb8\x83",
"\xa4" => "\xe0\xb8\x84",
"\xa5" => "\xe0\xb8\x85",
"\xa6" => "\xe0\xb8\x86",
"\xa7" => "\xe0\xb8\x87",
"\xa8" => "\xe0\xb8\x88",
"\xa9" => "\xe0\xb8\x89",
"\xaa" => "\xe0\xb8\x8a",
"\xab" => "\xe0\xb8\x8b",
"\xac" => "\xe0\xb8\x8c",
"\xad" => "\xe0\xb8\x8d",
"\xae" => "\xe0\xb8\x8e",
"\xaf" => "\xe0\xb8\x8f",
"\xb0" => "\xe0\xb8\x90",
"\xb1" => "\xe0\xb8\x91",
"\xb2" => "\xe0\xb8\x92",
"\xb3" => "\xe0\xb8\x93",
"\xb4" => "\xe0\xb8\x94",
"\xb5" => "\xe0\xb8\x95",
"\xb6" => "\xe0\xb8\x96",
"\xb7" => "\xe0\xb8\x97",
"\xb8" => "\xe0\xb8\x98",
"\xb9" => "\xe0\xb8\x99",
"\xba" => "\xe0\xb8\x9a",
"\xbb" => "\xe0\xb8\x9b",
"\xbc" => "\xe0\xb8\x9c",
"\xbd" => "\xe0\xb8\x9d",
"\xbe" => "\xe0\xb8\x9e",
"\xbf" => "\xe0\xb8\x9f",
"\xc0" => "\xe0\xb8\xa0",
"\xc1" => "\xe0\xb8\xa1",
"\xc2" => "\xe0\xb8\xa2",
"\xc3" => "\xe0\xb8\xa3",
"\xc4" => "\xe0\xb8\xa4",
"\xc5" => "\xe0\xb8\xa5",
"\xc6" => "\xe0\xb8\xa6",
"\xc7" => "\xe0\xb8\xa7",
"\xc8" => "\xe0\xb8\xa8",
"\xc9" => "\xe0\xb8\xa9",
"\xca" => "\xe0\xb8\xaa",
"\xcb" => "\xe0\xb8\xab",
"\xcc" => "\xe0\xb8\xac",
"\xcd" => "\xe0\xb8\xad",
"\xce" => "\xe0\xb8\xae",
"\xcf" => "\xe0\xb8\xaf",
"\xd0" => "\xe0\xb8\xb0",
"\xd1" => "\xe0\xb8\xb1",
"\xd2" => "\xe0\xb8\xb2",
"\xd3" => "\xe0\xb8\xb3",
"\xd4" => "\xe0\xb8\xb4",
"\xd5" => "\xe0\xb8\xb5",
"\xd6" => "\xe0\xb8\xb6",
"\xd7" => "\xe0\xb8\xb7",
"\xd8" => "\xe0\xb8\xb8",
"\xd9" => "\xe0\xb8\xb9",
"\xda" => "\xe0\xb8\xba",
"\xdf" => "\xe0\xb8\xbf",
"\xe0" => "\xe0\xb9\x80",
"\xe1" => "\xe0\xb9\x81",
"\xe2" => "\xe0\xb9\x82",
"\xe3" => "\xe0\xb9\x83",
"\xe4" => "\xe0\xb9\x84",
"\xe5" => "\xe0\xb9\x85",
"\xe6" => "\xe0\xb9\x86",
"\xe7" => "\xe0\xb9\x87",
"\xe8" => "\xe0\xb9\x88",
"\xe9" => "\xe0\xb9\x89",
"\xea" => "\xe0\xb9\x8a",
"\xeb" => "\xe0\xb9\x8b",
"\xec" => "\xe0\xb9\x8c",
"\xed" => "\xe0\xb9\x8d",
"\xee" => "\xe0\xb9\x8e",
"\xef" => "\xe0\xb9\x8f",
"\xf0" => "\xe0\xb9\x90",
"\xf1" => "\xe0\xb9\x91",
"\xf2" => "\xe0\xb9\x92",
"\xf3" => "\xe0\xb9\x93",
"\xf4" => "\xe0\xb9\x94",
"\xf5" => "\xe0\xb9\x95",
"\xf6" => "\xe0\xb9\x96",
"\xf7" => "\xe0\xb9\x97",
"\xf8" => "\xe0\xb9\x98",
"\xf9" => "\xe0\xb9\x99",
"\xfa" => "\xe0\xb9\x9a",
"\xfb" => "\xe0\xb9\x9b"
 );
 
     $string=strtr($string,$iso8859_11);
     return $string;
 }

Suttichai Mesaard-www.ceforce.com
bisqwit at iki dot fi
20-May-2005 08:15
For reference, it may be insightful to point out that:
  utf8_encode($s)
is actually identical to:
  recode_string('latin1..utf8', $s)
and:
  iconv('iso-8859-1', 'utf-8', $s)
That is, utf8_encode is a specialized case of character set conversions.

If your string to be converted to utf-8 is something other than iso-8859-1 (such as iso-8859-2 (Polish/Croatian)), you should use recode_string() or iconv() instead rather than trying to devise complex str_replace statements.
JF Sebastian
09-Apr-2005 10:54
The following Perl regular expression tests if a string is well-formed Unicode UTF-8 (Broken up after each | since long lines are not permitted here. Please join as a single line, no spaces, before use.):

^([\x00-\x7f]|
[\xc2-\xdf][\x80-\xbf]|
\xe0[\xa0-\xbf][\x80-\xbf]|
[\xe1-\xec][\x80-\xbf]{2}|
\xed[\x80-\x9f][\x80-\xbf]|
[\xee-\xef][\x80-\xbf]{2}|
f0[\x90-\xbf][\x80-\xbf]{2}|
[\xf1-\xf3][\x80-\xbf]{3}|
\xf4[\x80-\x8f][\x80-\xbf]{2})*$

NOTE: This strictly follows the Unicode standard 4.0, as described in chapter 3.9, table 3-6, "Well-formed UTF-8 byte sequences" ( http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode4.0.0/ch03.pdf#G31703 ).

ISO-10646, a super-set of Unicode, uses UTF-8 (there called "UCS", see http://www.unicode.org/faq/utf_bom.html#1 ) in a relaxed variant that supports a 31-bit space encoded into up to six bytes instead of Unicode's 21 bits in up to four bytes. To check for ISO-10646 UTF-8, use the following Perl regular expression (again, broken up, see above):

^([\x00-\x7f]|
[\xc0-\xdf][\x80-\xbf]|
[\xe0-\xef][\x80-\xbf]{2}|
[\xf0-\xf7][\x80-\xbf]{3}|
[\xf8-\xfb][\x80-\xbf]{4}|
[\xfc-\xfd][\x80-\xbf]{5})*$

The following function may be used with above expressions for a quick UTF-8 test, e.g. to distinguish ISO-8859-1-data from UTF-8-data if submitted from a <form accept-charset="utf-8,iso-8859-1" method=..>.

function is_utf8($string) {
   return (preg_match('/[insert regular expression here]/', $string) === 1);
}
http://iubito.free.fr
10-Mar-2005 07:57
Here's a function I made to know if one string or textfile is already encoded in UTF8 :

<?php
/**
 * Returns <kbd>true</kbd> if the string or array of string is encoded in UTF8.
 *
 * Example of use. If you want to know if a file is saved in UTF8 format :
 * <code> $array = file('one file.txt');
 * $isUTF8 = isUTF8($array);
 * if (!$isUTF8) --> we need to apply utf8_encode() to be in UTF8
 * else --> we are in UTF8 :)
 * </code>
 * @param mixed A string, or an array from a file() function.
 * @return boolean
 */
function isUTF8($string)
{
    if (
is_array($string))
    {
       
$enc = implode('', $string);
        return @!((
ord($enc[0]) != 239) && (ord($enc[1]) != 187) && (ord($enc[2]) != 191));
    }
    else
    {
        return (
utf8_encode(utf8_decode($string)) == $string);
    }   
}
?>
Denis G.
24-Feb-2005 01:32
Sniplet to convert ASCII coded text to UTF-8:

$text= preg_replace ('/([\x80-\xff])/se', "pack (\"C*\", (ord ($1) >> 6) | 0xc0, (ord ($1) & 0x3f) | 0x80)", $text);
anonymous at anonymous dot com
24-Jan-2005 10:49
A few bugs in your example code:

 function code2utf($num){
  if($num<128)return chr($num);
  if($num<2048)return chr(($num>>6)+192).chr(($num&63)+128);
  if($num<65536)return chr(($num>>12)+224).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128).chr(($num&63)+128);
  if($num<2097152)return chr(($num>>18)+240).chr((($num>>12)&63)+128).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128) .chr(($num&63)+128);
  return '';
 }
schofei at yahoo dot de
11-Jan-2005 11:23
regarding the above code2utf function...

> romans at void dot lv
> 02-Oct-2002 09:59
> Here is optimized function which converts
> binary UTF symbol code into unicoded string....

Thanks for providing your nice conversion code, however due to some missing parenthesis 4-byte utf-8 chars are not converted properly.

Here is a corrected version of the code2utf function:

 function code2utf($num){
  if($num<128)return chr($num);
  if($num<1024)return chr(($num>>6)+192).chr(($num&63)+128);
  if($num<32768)return chr(($num>>12)+224).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128).chr(($num&63)+128);
  if($num<2097152)return chr(($num>>18)+240).chr((($num>>12)&63)+128).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128) .chr(($num&63)+128);
  return '';
 }
 
regards
Scho Fei
hrpeters (at) gmx (dot) net
14-Dec-2004 06:46
// Validate Unicode UTF-8 Version 4
// This function takes as reference the table 3.6 found at http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode4.0.0/ch03.pdf
// It also flags overlong bytes as error

function is_validUTF8($str)
{
    // values of -1 represent disalloweded values for the first bytes in current UTF-8
    static $trailing_bytes = array (
        0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,
        0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,
        0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,
        0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,
        -1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1, -1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,
        -1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1, -1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,
        -1,-1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1, 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,
        2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2, 3,3,3,3,3,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1,-1
    );

    $ups = unpack('C*', $str);
    if (!($aCnt = count($ups))) return true; // Empty string *is* valid UTF-8
    for ($i = 1; $i <= $aCnt;)
    {
        if (!($tbytes = $trailing_bytes[($b1 = $ups[$i++])])) continue;
        if ($tbytes == -1) return false;
       
        $first = true;
        while ($tbytes > 0 && $i <= $aCnt)
        {
            $cbyte = $ups[$i++];
            if (($cbyte & 0xC0) != 0x80) return false;
           
            if ($first)
            {
                switch ($b1)
                {
                    case 0xE0:
                        if ($cbyte < 0xA0) return false;
                        break;
                    case 0xED:
                        if ($cbyte > 0x9F) return false;
                        break;
                    case 0xF0:
                        if ($cbyte < 0x90) return false;
                        break;
                    case 0xF4:
                        if ($cbyte > 0x8F) return false;
                        break;
                    default:
                        break;
                }
                $first = false;
            }
            $tbytes--;
        }
        if ($tbytes) return false; // incomplete sequence at EOS
    }       
    return true;
}
Mark AT modernbill DOT com
09-Nov-2004 07:56
If you haven't guessed already: If the UTF-8 character has no representation in the ISO-8859-1 codepage, a ? will be returned. You might want to wrap a function around this to make sure you aren't saving a bunch of ???? into your database.
Aidan Kehoe <php-manual at parhasard dot net>
30-Aug-2004 02:05
Here's some code that addresses the issue that Steven describes in the previous comment;

<?php

/* This structure encodes the difference between ISO-8859-1 and Windows-1252,
   as a map from the UTF-8 encoding of some ISO-8859-1 control characters to
   the UTF-8 encoding of the non-control characters that Windows-1252 places
   at the equivalent code points. */

$cp1252_map = array(
   
"\xc2\x80" => "\xe2\x82\xac", /* EURO SIGN */
   
"\xc2\x82" => "\xe2\x80\x9a", /* SINGLE LOW-9 QUOTATION MARK */
   
"\xc2\x83" => "\xc6\x92",     /* LATIN SMALL LETTER F WITH HOOK */
   
"\xc2\x84" => "\xe2\x80\x9e", /* DOUBLE LOW-9 QUOTATION MARK */
   
"\xc2\x85" => "\xe2\x80\xa6", /* HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS */
   
"\xc2\x86" => "\xe2\x80\xa0", /* DAGGER */
   
"\xc2\x87" => "\xe2\x80\xa1", /* DOUBLE DAGGER */
   
"\xc2\x88" => "\xcb\x86",     /* MODIFIER LETTER CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT */
   
"\xc2\x89" => "\xe2\x80\xb0", /* PER MILLE SIGN */
   
"\xc2\x8a" => "\xc5\xa0",     /* LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH CARON */
   
"\xc2\x8b" => "\xe2\x80\xb9", /* SINGLE LEFT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION */
   
"\xc2\x8c" => "\xc5\x92",     /* LATIN CAPITAL LIGATURE OE */
   
"\xc2\x8e" => "\xc5\xbd",     /* LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z WITH CARON */
   
"\xc2\x91" => "\xe2\x80\x98", /* LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK */
   
"\xc2\x92" => "\xe2\x80\x99", /* RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK */
   
"\xc2\x93" => "\xe2\x80\x9c", /* LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK */
   
"\xc2\x94" => "\xe2\x80\x9d", /* RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK */
   
"\xc2\x95" => "\xe2\x80\xa2", /* BULLET */
   
"\xc2\x96" => "\xe2\x80\x93", /* EN DASH */
   
"\xc2\x97" => "\xe2\x80\x94", /* EM DASH */

   
"\xc2\x98" => "\xcb\x9c",     /* SMALL TILDE */
   
"\xc2\x99" => "\xe2\x84\xa2", /* TRADE MARK SIGN */
   
"\xc2\x9a" => "\xc5\xa1",     /* LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH CARON */
   
"\xc2\x9b" => "\xe2\x80\xba", /* SINGLE RIGHT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION*/
   
"\xc2\x9c" => "\xc5\x93",     /* LATIN SMALL LIGATURE OE */
   
"\xc2\x9e" => "\xc5\xbe",     /* LATIN SMALL LETTER Z WITH CARON */
   
"\xc2\x9f" => "\xc5\xb8"      /* LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS*/
);

function
cp1252_to_utf8($str) {
        global
$cp1252_map;
        return 
strtr(utf8_encode($str), $cp1252_map);
}

?>
steven -at- acko -dot- net
17-Aug-2004 09:45
Note that you should only use utf8_encode() on ISO-8859-1 data, and not on data using the Windows-1252 codepage. Microsoft's Windows-1252 codepage contains ISO-8859-1, but it includes several characters in the range 0x80-0x9F whose codepoints in Unicode do not match the byte's value (in Unicode, codepoints U+80 - U+9F are unassigned).

utf8_encode() simply assumes the bytes integer value is the codepoint number in Unicode.

E.g. in 1252, byte 0x80 is the euro sign, which is U+20AC. The same goes for curly quotes, em dashes, etc.

utf8_encode() will convert 0x80 into U+0080 (an unassigned codepoint) rather than U+20AC.

To convert 1252 to UTF-8, use iconv, recode or mbstring.
Net Raven
24-Jun-2004 07:58
I often need to convert multi language text sent to me for use in websites and other apps into UTF8 encoded so I can insert it into source code and databases.

I knocked up a small web page with its charset set to UTF8 then set it up so I can paste from the original doc (eg word or excel) and have the page return the UTF8 encoded version.

Of course the browser will convert the unicode to UTF8 for you as part of the submit (I use IE5 or better for this) then all you have to do in the PHP is encode the UTF8 so the browser will show it in its raw form.

Its a bit bulky but I just convert ALL character to html numbered entities (brute force and ignorance does it again.)

I've used this to encode everything from Hebrew to Japanese without problems

<?
header
("Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8");
$code = (get_magic_quotes_gpc())?stripslashes($GLOBALS[code]):$GLOBALS[code];
?>
<html>
<head>
    <title>UTF8 ENCODER PAGE</title>
    <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
</head>
<body>
<form method=post action="?seed=<?=time()?>">
    Original Unicode<br />
    <textarea name="code" cols="80" rows="10"><?=$code?></textarea><br />
    Encoded UTF8<br />
    <textarea name="encd" cols="80" rows="10"><?
       
for ($i = 0; $i < strlen($code); $i++) {
            echo
'&#'.ord(substr($code,$i,1));
        }
   
?></textarea><br />
    <input type="submit" value="encode">
</form>
</body>
</html>
lorro at lorro dot wigner dot bme dot hu
06-Apr-2004 02:12
Good news is that utf8_encode (like UTF-8) passes '<', '>', '/', '\'', '"', etc., so you are free to utf8_encode complete blocks of html text that includes tags.
Bad news is that UTF-8 is stupid enough so that utf8_encode(utf8_encode($str)) != utf8_encode($str) in most of the cases. What you can do is write utf8_ensure like:

function utf8_ensure($str) {
    return seems_utf8($str)? $str: utf8_encode($str);
}

Comes handy when your view library tries to encode the same text multiple times.
bmorel at ssi dot fr
17-Feb-2004 09:22
Here is an improved version of that function, compatible with 31-bit encoding scheme of Unicode 3.x :

<?php
function seems_utf8($Str) {
 for (
$i=0; $i<strlen($Str); $i++) {
  if (
ord($Str[$i]) < 0x80) continue; # 0bbbbbbb
 
elseif ((ord($Str[$i]) & 0xE0) == 0xC0) $n=1; # 110bbbbb
 
elseif ((ord($Str[$i]) & 0xF0) == 0xE0) $n=2; # 1110bbbb
 
elseif ((ord($Str[$i]) & 0xF8) == 0xF0) $n=3; # 11110bbb
 
elseif ((ord($Str[$i]) & 0xFC) == 0xF8) $n=4; # 111110bb
 
elseif ((ord($Str[$i]) & 0xFE) == 0xFC) $n=5; # 1111110b
 
else return false; # Does not match any model
 
for ($j=0; $j<$n; $j++) { # n bytes matching 10bbbbbb follow ?
  
if ((++$i == strlen($Str)) || ((ord($Str[$i]) & 0xC0) != 0x80))
    return
false;
  }
 }
 return
true;
}
?>
bmorel at ssi dot fr
16-Feb-2004 08:28
Here is a simple function that can help, if you want to know if a string could be UTF-8 or not :

<?php
function seems_utf8($Str) {
 for (
$i=0; $i<strlen($Str); $i++) {
  if (
ord($Str[$i]) < 0x80) $n=0; # 0bbbbbbb
 
elseif ((ord($Str[$i]) & 0xE0) == 0xC0) $n=1; # 110bbbbb
 
elseif ((ord($Str[$i]) & 0xF0) == 0xE0) $n=2; # 1110bbbb
 
elseif ((ord($Str[$i]) & 0xF0) == 0xF0) $n=3; # 1111bbbb
 
else return false; # Does not match any model
 
for ($j=0; $j<$n; $j++) { # n octets that match 10bbbbbb follow ?
  
if ((++$i == strlen($Str)) || ((ord($Str[$i]) & 0xC0) != 0x80)) return false;
  }
 }
 return
true;
}
?>
Karen
01-Oct-2003 07:33
Re the previous post about converting GB2312 code to Unicode code which displayed the following function:

<?
// Program by sadly (www.phpx.com)

function gb2unicode($gb)
{
   if(!
trim($gb))
    return
$gb;
  
$filename="gb2312.txt";
  
$tmp=file($filename);
  
$codetable=array();
   while(list(
$key,$value)=each($tmp))
   
$codetable[hexdec(substr($value,0,6))]=substr($value,9,4);
  
$utf="";
   while(
$gb)
    {
      if (
ord(substr($gb,0,1))>127)
     {
       
$this=substr($gb,0,2);
       
$gb=substr($gb,2,strlen($gb));
       
$utf.="&#x".$codetable[hexdec(bin2hex($this))-0x8080].";";
      }
     else
     {
     
$gb=substr($gb,1,strlen($gb));
     
$utf.=substr($gb,0,1);
     }
     }
  return
$utf;
}
?>

I found that a small change was needed in the code to properly handle latin characters embedded in the middle of gb2312 text, as when the text includes a URL or email address. Just reverse the two lines in the part of the statement above that handles ord vals !>127.

Change:

$gb=substr($gb,1,strlen($gb));
$utf.=substr($gb,0,1);

to:

$utf.=substr($gb,0,1);
$gb=substr($gb,1,strlen($gb));

In the original function, the first latin chacter was dropped and it was not converting the first non-latin character after the latin text (everything was shifted one character too far to the right). Reversing those two lines makes it work correctly in every example I have tried.

Also, the source of the gb2312.txt file needed for this to work has changed. You can find it a couple places:

http://tcl.apache.org/sources/tcl/tools/encoding/gb2312.txt
ftp://ftp.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS/OBSOLETE/EASTASIA/GB/GB2312.TXT
artem at w510 dot tm dot odessa dot ua
03-Jun-2003 02:10
Loading variables in flash

you can lost a lot of hours if your charset is not iso-88951 and you cant' see your characters in flash

you must use iconv instead with your codepage
(for example windows-1251 for ukrainian, russian)

$fw = fopen("flash_input.txt", "w");
if( $fw )
{
    $utf = iconv("windows-1251","UTF-8",$variable_value);
    $out = 'variable_name='.$utf;
    fputs($fw, $out);
    fclose($fw);
}

and no urlecode is needed if you save data in file!
mualem_i at hotmail dot com
22-May-2003 01:12
Hebrew!! What a language. I had some trouble placing the Hebrew in a javascript based drop down menu, the text appeared as UTF8 so I made this function to overcome the problem (Not talking about efficiency)

function rtf_heb($string)
    {
    $array = split (" ",$string) ;
    foreach ($array as $VAL)
        {
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1488","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1489","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1490","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1491","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1492","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1493","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1494","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1495","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1496","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1497","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1499","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1500","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1502","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1504","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1505","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1506","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1508","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1510","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1511","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1512","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1513","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1514","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1498","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1507","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1503","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1501","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace("&#1509","�",$VAL);
        $VAL = str_replace(";","",$VAL);
        $send_VAR .= $VAL." ";
       
        }
        return $send_VAR;
    }
RoyLaw at 263 dot Net
19-May-2003 11:16
There is a function for converting GB2312 code to Unicode code.It maybe useful for programming on XML/WML in non-English lanaguages.

<?
// Program by sadly (www.phpx.com)

function gb2unicode($gb)
{
   if(!
trim($gb))
    return
$gb;
  
$filename="gb2312.txt";
  
$tmp=file($filename);
  
$codetable=array();
   while(list(
$key,$value)=each($tmp))
   
$codetable[hexdec(substr($value,0,6))]=substr($value,9,4);
  
$utf="";
   while(
$gb)
    {
      if (
ord(substr($gb,0,1))>127)
     {
       
$this=substr($gb,0,2);
       
$gb=substr($gb,2,strlen($gb));
       
$utf.="&#x".$codetable[hexdec(bin2hex($this))-0x8080].";";
      }
     else
     {
     
$gb=substr($gb,1,strlen($gb));
     
$utf.=substr($gb,0,1);
     }
     }
  return
$utf;
}
?>

This function requires a code list of gb2312,you can download it at
ftp://ftp.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS/EASTASIA/GB/GB2312.TXT
sunish_mv at rediffmail dot com
04-Apr-2003 06:50
/*Here I have a class that will convert ISCII (Indian Standard Code for Information Interchange) devnagiri (Hindi) string to unicode string. /*

<?php

 
class iscii2utf8 {

      var
$map;

      function
iscii2utf8() {

         
$this->map = array (
                  
"a0" =>  '63'  ,
                
"a1" => '2305' ,
                
"a2" => '2306' ,
                
"a3" => '2307' ,
                
"a4" => '2309' ,
                
"a5" => '2310' ,
                
"a6" => '2311' ,
                
"a7" => '2312' ,
                
"a8" => '2313' ,
                
"a9" => '2314' ,
                
"aa" => '2315' ,
                
"ab" => '2318' ,
                
"ac" => '2319' ,
                
"ad" => '2320' ,
                
"ae" => '2317' ,
                
"af" => '2322' ,
                
"b0" => '2323' ,
                
"b1" => '2324' ,
                
"b2" => '2321' ,
                
"b3" => '2325' ,
                
"b4" => '2326' ,
                
"b5" => '2327' ,
                
"b6" => '2328' ,
                
"b7" => '2329' ,
                
"b8" => '2330' ,
                
"b9" => '2331' ,
                
"ba" => '2332' ,
                
"bb" => '2333' ,
                
"bc" => '2334' ,
                
"bd" => '2335' ,
                
"be" => '2336' ,
                
"bf" => '2337' ,
                
"c0" => '2338' ,
                
"c1" => '2339' ,
                
"c2" => '2340' ,
                
"c3" => '2341' ,
                
"c4" => '2342' ,
                
"c5" => '2343' ,
                
"c6" => '2344' ,
                
"c7" => '2345' ,
                
"c8" => '2346' ,
                
"c9" => '2347' ,
                
"ca" => '2348' ,
                
"cb" => '2349' ,
                
"cc" => '2350' ,
                
"cd" => '2351' ,
                
"ce" => '2399' ,
                
"cf" => '2352' ,
                
"d0" => '2353' ,
                
"d1" => '2354' ,
                
"d2" => '2355' ,
                
"d3" => '2356' ,
                
"d4" => '2357' ,
                
"d5" => '2358' ,
                
"d6" => '2359' ,
                
"d7" => '2360' ,
                
"d8" => '2361' ,
                
"d9" =>  '63'  ,
                
"da" => '2366' ,
                
"db" => '2367' ,
                
"dc" => '2368' ,
                
"dd" => '2369' ,
                
"de" => '2370' ,
                
"df" => '2371' ,
                
"e0" => '2374' ,
                
"e1" => '2375' ,
                
"e2" => '2376' ,
                
"e3" => '2373' ,
                
"e4" => '2378' ,
                
"e5" => '2379' ,
                
"e6" => '2380' ,
                
"e7" => '2377' ,
                
"e8" => '2381' ,
                
"e9" =>  '63'  ,
                
"ea" => '2404' ,
                
"eb" =>  '63'  ,
                
"ec" =>  '63'  ,
                
"ed" =>  '63'  ,
                
"ee" =>  '63'  ,
                
"ef" =>  '63'  ,
                
"f0" =>  '63'  ,
                
"f1" => '2406' ,
                
"f2" => '2407' ,
                
"f3" => '2408' ,
                
"f4" => '2409' ,
                
"f5" => '2410' ,
                
"f6" => '2411' ,
                
"f7" => '2412' ,
                
"f8" => '2413' ,
                
"f9" => '2414' ,
                
"fa" => '2415' ,
                
"fb" =>  '63'  ,
                
"fc" =>  '63'  ,
                
"fd" =>  '63'  ,
                
"fe" =>  '63'  ,
                
"ff" =>  '63'  ,);
        }

        function
code2utf($num){

            
//Returns the utf string corresponding to the unicode value
             //courtesy - romans@void.lv

            
if($num<128)return chr($num);
             if(
$num<1024)return chr(($num>>6)+192).chr(($num&63)+128);
             if(
$num<32768)return chr(($num>>12)+224).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128).chr(($num&63)+128);
             if(
$num<2097152)return chr($num>>18+240).chr((($num>>12)&63)+128).chr(($num>>6)&63+128). chr($num&63+128);
             return
'';

        }

        function
convertstring($iscii) {
           
//Returs utf8 string equibalent of given iscii string
           
           
$str = "";
            for(
$i = 0; $i<strlen($iscii); $i++) {

               
$c = dechex(ord(substr($iscii,$i,1)));
                if (isset(
$this->map[$c] )) {
                   
$s = $this->code2utf($this->map[$c]);
                   
$str .= ($s == "?")?"":$s;
                    }
                else {
                  
$str .= substr($iscii,$i,1);
                   }

            }

            return
$str;
        }

    }

?>
rbotzer at yahoo dot com
01-Apr-2003 09:25
BTW, the 21-bit range is pretty old news.  Unicode 3.x uses a 31bit encoding scheme that allows for 2 billion characters.

I'll post an enhanced encoder soon.  In the meanwhile here's the current encoding scheme: http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mgk25/unicode.html#utf-8

Ronen
webmaster at swisswebgroup dot com
31-Mar-2003 01:54
if you try to pass data to a flash movie with the
actionscripts functions loadVars or sendAndLoad give this a try,
if you have problems with special chars like &auml; &ouml; ....

echo "&data1=".urlencode(utf8_encode("���"))
    ."&data2=".urlencode(utf8_encode("���"));

greets

js
romans at void dot lv
03-Oct-2002 01:59
Here is optimized function which converts binary UTF symbol code into unicoded string.

 function code2utf($num){
  if($num<128)return chr($num);
  if($num<1024)return chr(($num>>6)+192).chr(($num&63)+128);
  if($num<32768)return chr(($num>>12)+224).chr((($num>>6)&63)+128).chr(($num&63)+128);
  if($num<2097152)return chr($num>>18+240).chr((($num>>12)&63)+128).chr(($num>>6)&63+128). chr($num&63+128);
  return '';
 }
dimitrisATccfDOTauthDOTgr
28-Aug-2002 06:04
To make utf8_encode and utf8_decode support other than iso-8859-1 encodings, you can easily define your encoding in the PHP source.
In the file PHP_SOURCE/ext/xml/xml.c add the following code, for e.g. greek iso-8859-7:

DEFINE TWO NEW FUNCTIONS UP TOP:
inline static unsigned short xml_encode_iso_8859_7(unsigned char);
inline static char xml_decode_iso_8859_7(unsigned short);

AND THEN IMPLEMENT THEM BELOW:
/* {{{ xml_encode_iso_8859_7() - Dimitris Daskopoulos 28/8/02 */
/* map iso-8859-7 chars to Unicode chars */
inline static unsigned short xml_encode_iso_8859_7(unsigned char c)
{
        if (c < 0x80) { /* low-ASCII, leave as is */
                return (unsigned short)c;
        } else { /* Greek character in high-ASCII */
                /* map to UCS greek range (U+0310..03ff) */
                /* assume that c < 0xff */
                return (unsigned short)(c + 720);
        }
}
/* }}} */

/* {{{ xml_decode_iso_8859_7() - Dimitris Daskopoulos 28/8/02 */
/* map Unicode chars to iso-8859-7 chars */
inline static char xml_decode_iso_8859_7(unsigned short c)
{
        if (c < 0x100) { /* char in latin chart, leave as is */
                return (char)c;
        } else if (c > 0x030f && c < 0x0400) { /* char in greek chart */
                /* map back to ISO-8859-7 greek (high-ASCII) */
                return (char)(c - 720);
        } else { /* char not in latin or greek Unicode charts */
                /* return question mark character */
                return (char)('?');
        }
}
/* }}} */

These two work fine for greek iso-8859-7, but studying http://www.unicode.org/charts you
can implement mappings between unicode and other iso-8859-x quite easily.

In both functions (utf8_encode and utf8_decode), change the requested encoding to the one you prefer, e.g.

encoded = xml_utf8_encode(Z_STRVAL_PP(arg), Z_STRLEN_PP(arg), &len, "ISO-8859-7");

decoded = xml_utf8_decode(Z_STRVAL_PP(arg), Z_STRLEN_PP(arg), &len, "ISO-8859-7");

Make sure you add the new encoding
in the structure, by entering a new
row with the official name (ISO-8859-7), and the names of the
two functions you have just defined:
xml_encoding xml_encodings[] = {
        { "ISO-8859-1", xml_decode_iso_8859_1, xml_encode_iso_8859_1 },
        { "US-ASCII",   xml_decode_us_ascii,   xml_encode_us_ascii   },
        { "UTF-8",      NULL,                  NULL                  },
        { "ISO-8859-7", xml_decode_iso_8859_7, xml_encode_iso_8859_7 },
        { NULL,         NULL,                  NULL                  }
};

Finally, the following is probably not necessary, but I changed the default encoding (found in 2 spots in this file) to whatever encoding you prefer in your
pages, e.g.:
XML(default_encoding) = "ISO-8859-7";

This solution is a little messy,
since the utf8_encode function does not accept an argument for choosing the encoding method to use but hardwires the encoding method in the source code. Maybe PHP developers will provide this option in future releases. Until then, this is a quick and dirty solution that will work for
localized PHP pages.

Dimitris Daskopoulos
27-Aug-2002 06:30
For XML generation, if you want non-ASCII ISO-8859-1 characters within text and attributes, you don't absolutely need UTF-8 encoding:

The optional XML declaration can change the default encoding for characters from UTF-8 to ISO-8859-1:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1" ?>

This can save a lot of PHP code if you just want to generate ISO-8859-1 text and attribute values...

XML specification requires that all parsers support both the UTF-8 encoding (by default), and the ISO-8859-1 character set. Other character sets may be supported also by specifying them in the encoding attribute of the leading XML declaration (but the target parser must support this character set to allow automatic conversion of the source text into Unicode character entities.
dutoit at NOSPAM dot abonder dot com
01-Aug-2002 06:50
To write an XML element $title containing "exotic" (eg. non ASCII � & � �...) 2 solutions I found :
Fastest :
$xml .= "<title><![CDATA[" . $title ."]]></title>\n"

or cleanest :
$xml .= "<title>".utf8_encode(htmlspecialchars($title))."</title>\n"

After that, your xml can be parsed without errors.
sts at netempire dot de at nospam dot remove at this dot com
12-Apr-2002 03:18
if you want to encode/decode arrays, use these recursive functions

function utf8_encode_array (&$array, $key) {
    if(is_array($array)) {
      array_walk ($array, 'utf8_encode_array');
    } else {
      $array = utf8_encode($array);
    }
}

function utf8_decode_array (&$array, $key) {
    if(is_array($array)) {
      array_walk ($array, 'utf8_decode_array');
    } else {
      $array = utf8_decode($array);
    }
}

and call them with array_walk for e.g.
array_walk ($array_unencoded, 'utf8_decode_array');
lars(at)ioflux(dot)net
13-Mar-2002 04:29
This will also do the job for those who're interested:

<?

function utf8toiso8859($string)
{   
 
$returns = "";
 
$UTF8len = array(1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 6);
 
$pos = 0;
 
$antal = strlen($string);
 
  do
  {
   
$c = ord($string[$pos]);
   
$len = $UTF8len[($c >> 2) & 0x3F];
    switch (
$len)
    {
      case
6:
       
$u = $c & 0x01;
        break;
      case
5:
       
$u = $c & 0x03;
        break;
      case
4:
       
$u = $c & 0x07;
        break;
      case
3:
       
$u = $c & 0x0F;
        break;
      case
2:
       
$u = $c & 0x1F;
        break;
      case
1:
       
$u = $c & 0x7F;
        break;
      case
0 /* unexpected start of a new character */
       
$u = $c & 0x3F;
       
$len = 5;
        break;
    }
    while (--
$len && (++$pos < $antal && $c =
ord($string[$pos])))
    {
      if ((
$c & 0xC0) == 0x80)
       
$u = ($u << 6) | ($c & 0x3F);
      else
      {
/* unexpected start of a new character */
       
$pos--;
        break;
      }
    }
    if (
$u <= 0xFF)
     
$returns .= chr($u);
    else
     
$returns .= '?';
  } while (++
$pos < $antal);
  return
$returns;
}

?>
ronen at greyzone dot com
07-Mar-2002 08:01
The following function will utf-8 encode unicode entities &#nnn(nn); with n={0..9}

/**
* takes a string of unicode entities and converts it to a utf-8 encoded string
* each unicode entitiy has the form &#nnn(nn); n={0..9} and can be displayed by utf-8 supporting
* browsers.  Ascii will not be modified.
* @param $source string of unicode entities [STRING]
* @return a utf-8 encoded string [STRING]
* @access public
*/
function utf8Encode ($source) {
    $utf8Str = '';
    $entityArray = explode ("&#", $source);
    $size = count ($entityArray);
    for ($i = 0; $i < $size; $i++) {
        $subStr = $entityArray[$i];
        $nonEntity = strstr ($subStr, ';');
        if ($nonEntity !== false) {
            $unicode = intval (substr ($subStr, 0, (strpos ($subStr, ';') + 1)));
            // determine how many chars are needed to reprsent this unicode char
            if ($unicode < 128) {
                $utf8Substring = chr ($unicode);
            }
            else if ($unicode >= 128 && $unicode < 2048) {
                $binVal = str_pad (decbin ($unicode), 11, "0", STR_PAD_LEFT);
                $binPart1 = substr ($binVal, 0, 5);
                $binPart2 = substr ($binVal, 5);
           
                $char1 = chr (192 + bindec ($binPart1));
                $char2 = chr (128 + bindec ($binPart2));
                $utf8Substring = $char1 . $char2;
            }
            else if ($unicode >= 2048 && $unicode < 65536) {
                $binVal = str_pad (decbin ($unicode), 16, "0", STR_PAD_LEFT);
                $binPart1 = substr ($binVal, 0, 4);
                $binPart2 = substr ($binVal, 4, 6);
                $binPart3 = substr ($binVal, 10);
           
                $char1 = chr (224 + bindec ($binPart1));
                $char2 = chr (128 + bindec ($binPart2));
                $char3 = chr (128 + bindec ($binPart3));
                $utf8Substring = $char1 . $char2 . $char3;
            }
            else {
                $binVal = str_pad (decbin ($unicode), 21, "0", STR_PAD_LEFT);
                $binPart1 = substr ($binVal, 0, 3);
                $binPart2 = substr ($binVal, 3, 6);
                $binPart3 = substr ($binVal, 9, 6);
                $binPart4 = substr ($binVal, 15);
       
                $char1 = chr (240 + bindec ($binPart1));
                $char2 = chr (128 + bindec ($binPart2));
                $char3 = chr (128 + bindec ($binPart3));
                $char4 = chr (128 + bindec ($binPart4));
                $utf8Substring = $char1 . $char2 . $char3 . $char4;
            }
           
            if (strlen ($nonEntity) > 1)
                $nonEntity = substr ($nonEntity, 1); // chop the first char (';')
            else
                $nonEntity = '';

            $utf8Str .= $utf8Substring . $nonEntity;
        }
        else {
            $utf8Str .= $subStr;
        }
    }

    return $utf8Str;
}
       
Ronen.
 

 
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