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Переменные переменные

Иногда бывает удобно иметь переменными имена переменных. То есть, имя переменной, которое может быть определено и изменено динамически. Обычная переменная определяется примерно таким выражением:

<?php
$a 
"hello";
?>

Переменная переменная берет значение переменной и рассматривает его как имя переменной. В вышеприведенном примере hello может быть использовано как имя переменной при помощи двух знаков доллара. То есть:

<?php
$$a "world";
?>

Теперь в дереве символов PHP определены и содержатся две переменные: $a, содержащая "hello", и $hello, содержащая "world". Таким образом, выражение

<?php
echo "$a ${$a}";
?>

выведет то же, что и

<?php
echo "$a $hello";
?>

то есть, они оба выведут: hello world.

Для того чтобы использовать переменные переменные с массивами, вы должны решить проблему двусмысленности. То есть, если вы напишете $$a[1], обработчику необходимо знать, хотите ли вы использовать $a[1] в качестве переменной, либо вам нужна как переменная $$a, а затем ее индекс [1]. Синтаксис для разрешения этой двусмысленности таков: ${$a[1]} для первого случая и ${$a}[1] для второго.

Внимание

Пожалуйста, обратите внимание, что переменные переменные не могут использоваться с Суперглобальными массивами PHP. Это означает, что вы не можете делать что-то вроде ${$_GET}. Если вы ищете способ использовать суперглобальные переменные и старые HTTP_*_VARS, вы можете попробовать ссылаться на них.


User Contributed Notes
Variable variables
userb at exampleb dot org
08-Apr-2010 09:39
<?php

 
//You can even add more Dollar Signs

 
$Bar = "a";
 
$Foo = "Bar";
 
$World = "Foo";
 
$Hello = "World";
 
$a = "Hello";

 
$a; //Returns Hello
 
$$a; //Returns World
 
$$$a; //Returns Foo
 
$$$$a; //Returns Bar
 
$$$$$a; //Returns a

 
$$$$$$a; //Returns Hello
 
$$$$$$$a; //Returns World

  //... and so on ...//

?>
dlorre at yahoo dot com
16-Feb-2010 08:04
Adding an element directly to an array using variables:

<?php
$tab
= array("one", "two", "three") ;
$a = "tab" ;
$
$a[] ="four" ; // <==== fatal error
print_r($tab) ;
?>
will issue this error:

Fatal error: Cannot use [] for reading

This is not a bug, you need to use the {} syntax to remove the ambiguity.

<?php
$tab
= array("one", "two", "three") ;
$a = "tab" ;
${
$a}[] =  "four" ; // <==== this is the correct way to do it
print_r($tab) ;
?>
php at willshouse dot the-usual-uk-tld
21-Nov-2009 12:14
If you need to access one of the superglobals using a variable variable, you can look it up in $GLOBALS:

<?PHP
define
('FORM_METHOD', 'post');

function
getFormVariable( $fieldName, $defaultValue )
{
    global
$FILTER_METHOD;
   
$getpost = $GLOBALS[ '_' . strtoupper(FILTER_METHOD) ];
    if ( !
array_key_exists( $fieldName, $getpost    ) )    { return $defaultValue; }
    if ( empty(   
$getpost[ $fieldName ]            ) )    { return $defaultValue; }
    return
$getpost[ $fieldName ];
}

echo
"<form method=\"".FORM_METHOD."\">\n";
?>
al at o3strategies dot com
16-Nov-2009 02:01
This is an extremely handy use for variable variables especially when dealing with direct data modeling.  This will allow you to automatically set object properties based on a query result. When new fields are added to the table, the class will receive these properties automatically. This is great for maintaining user data or other large tables. Your property names will be bound to your column name in the database, making maintenance worry free. This method uses $this->{$var} for the variable variable creation.

<?php
class testTableData() {

    function
testTableData(){ 
       
// testTable includes the columns: name, user, date
       
$query = "SELECT * FROM testTable";     
       
$result = mysql_query($query) or die (mysql_error());
       
$row = mysql_fetch_array($result);
        foreach (
$row as $var => $key) {
           
$this->{$var} = $key;
        }   
    }

}

// Access table properties
$table = new testTableData();

echo
$table->name;
echo
$table->user;
echo
$table->date;

?>
Matthew (mwwaygoo AT hotmail DOT com)
02-Nov-2009 04:03
A note on Variable variables/functions and classes

To store a function name in a variable and call it later, within a class, you do the following:-

<?php

class test_class
{
    var
$func='display_UK' // function name *
   
   
function display_UK()
    {
        echo
"Hello";
    }
    function
display_FR()
    {
        echo
"Bonjour";
    }
    function
display()
    {
       
$this->{$this->func}(); // NOTE the brackets MUST be here and not in the function name above *
   
}

}

$test=new test_class();
$test->display_UK(); // to test they work directly
$test->display_FR();
$test->display();
?>

This allows you to specify the function required. It works better then a big switch statement as it allows for extending the class more easily. (ie adding display_ES(); )
moomin
24-Jun-2009 03:58
If $something is 'myvar' then you can use $obj->{"_$something"} to get the value of $obj->_myvar without having to use eval.
aditeojr at yahoo dot co dot uk
01-Jun-2009 09:36
Parsing and retrieving a value from superglobals, by a specified order, looping until it find one :

<?php
function GetInputString($name, $default_value = "", $format = "GPCS")
    {

       
//order of retrieve default GPCS (get, post, cookie, session);

       
$format_defines = array (
       
'G'=>'_GET',
       
'P'=>'_POST',
       
'C'=>'_COOKIE',
       
'S'=>'_SESSION',
       
'R'=>'_REQUEST',
       
'F'=>'_FILES',
        );
       
preg_match_all("/[G|P|C|S|R|F]/", $format, $matches); //splitting to globals order
       
foreach ($matches[0] as $k=>$glb)
        {
            if ( isset (
$GLOBALS[$format_defines[$glb]][$name]))
            {   
                return
$GLOBALS[$format_defines[$glb]][$name];
            }
        }
      
        return
$default_value;
    }
?>
php at ianco dot co dot uk
28-May-2009 09:47
<?php
// $variable-name = 'parse error';
// You can't do that but you can do this:
$a = 'variable-name';
$
$a = 'hello';
echo
$variable-name . ' ' . $$a; // Gives     0 hello
?>

For a particular reason I had been using some variable names with hyphens for ages. There was no problem because they were only referenced via a variable variable. I only saw a parse error much later, when I tried to reference one directly. It took a while to realise that illegal hyphens were the cause because the parse error only occurs on assignment.
nick at customdesigns dot ca
10-Dec-2008 06:14
On the topic of variable variables with arrays, I have a simple function that solves the issue. It works for both indexed and associative arrays, and allows use with superglobals.

<?php
function VariableArray($arr, $string)
    {
   
preg_match_all('/\[([^\]]*)\]/', $string, $arr_matches, PREG_PATTERN_ORDER);
   
   
$return = $arr;
    foreach(
$arr_matches[1] as $dimension)
        {
       
$return = $return[$dimension];
        }
       
    return
$return;
    }

$test = array('one' => 'two', 'four' => array(8));

$foo = 'test';
$bar = $$foo;
$baz = "[one]";
$var = VariableArray($bar, $baz); //$var now contains 'two'

$baz = "[four][0]";
$var = VariableArray($bar, $baz); //$var now contains int(8)
?>

You can simply pass in a superglobal as the first argument. Note for associative arrays don't put quotes inside the square braces unless you adjust the regexp to accept it. I wanted to keep it simple.
Anonymous
01-Dec-2008 03:44
I have a HTML form that has a dynamic number of fields (for entry of collected data it adds a new field each time) and would like to use the variable variable on _POST.  This way, I could increment the field name value with a loop limit when say 100 fields are reached (the max for the form.)

Below is the solution I came up with to work around it:

<?php
        $MaxRows
=100;
       
$NumbersOfTime=0;
       
extract ($_POST,EXTR_PREFIX_ALL,'pos');

        for (
$i = 1; $i <= $MaxRows; $i = $i + 1)
        {
               
$tmp = "pos_TimeRecorded{$i}";
                if (isset($
$tmp))
                {
                       
$TimeRecorded[$i]=$$tmp;

                }
                else
                {
                       
$NumbersOfTime=$i-1;
                        break;
                }
        }

?>
nullhility at gmail dot com
06-Jun-2008 07:43
It's also valuable to note the following:

<?php
${date("M")} = "Worked";
echo ${
date("M")};
?>

This is perfectly legal, anything inside the braces is executed first, the return value then becomes the variable name. Echoing the same variable variable using the function that created it results in the same return and therefore the same variable name is used in the echo statement. Have fun ;).
Nathan Hammond
11-Feb-2008 11:41
These are the scenarios that you may run into trying to reference superglobals dynamically. Whether or not it works appears to be dependent upon the current scope.

<?php

$_POST
['asdf'] = 'something';

function
test() {
   
// NULL -- not what initially expected
   
$string = '_POST';
   
var_dump(${$string});

   
// Works as expected
   
var_dump(${'_POST'});

   
// Works as expected
   
global ${$string};
   
var_dump(${$string});

}

// Works as expected
$string = '_POST';
var_dump(${$string});

test();

?>
j3nda at fv dot cz
30-Dec-2007 09:23
hi, i handling multi-array with like this:

i use this for some classes with direct access to $__info array. and i have some config_{set|get} static functions without this class, but handling is the same.

i'm not testing this piece of code for benchmark and high load.

<?php
class __info {
  private
$__info=array();

  public function
__s($value=null, $id='')
    {
        if (
$id == '')
            return
false;

       
$id='[\''.$id.'\']';
        for (
$i=2, $max=func_num_args(), $args=func_get_args(); $i<$max; $i++)
           
$id.='[\''.$args[$i].'\']';

        eval(
'
            if (isset($this->__info'
.$id.')) {
                // debug || vyjimka
            }
            $this->__info'
.$id.'=$value;
        '
);
        return
true;
    }

  public function
__g($id)
    {
       
$uid='';
        for (
$i=0, $max=func_num_args(), $args=func_get_args(); $i<$max; $i++)
           
$uid.="[\'".$args[$i]."\']";

        return eval(
'
            if (isset($this->__info'
.$uid.')) {
                return $this->__info'
.$uid.';

            } else {
                return false;
            }
            // debug || vyjimka
        '
);

        return
false;
    }
?>
craigmorey at gmail dot com
27-Dec-2007 04:23
For a long time I've been trying to use variable variables to figure out how to store and retrieve multi-dimensional arrays in a MySQL dbase. For instance, a config setting stored in a complex array might resemble the below:

<?php $config['modules']['module_events']['settings']['template']['name'] = 'List Page'; ?>

The most obvious way for storing this info in a dbase (discounting XML/JSON) is to store a "path" (of the nesting) and a "value" in a database record:

'modules,module_events,settings,template,name' = 'List Page'

But storing it is only part of the problem. PHP variable variables are no use to try and interpret string representations of arrays, eg it will see the string representation of a nested array such as config['modules']['module_events'] as a single variable called 'config[modules][module_events]', so loops that parse the "path" into a variable variable don't help.

So here is a little function that parses an array of "paths" and "value" strings (eg from a dbase) into a multi-dimensional nested array.

<?php
function multiArrayMe($input_array) {
   
$output_array = array();
   
# common sense check
   
if (!is_array($input_array)) {
        return
false;
    }
   
# loop through the array of "path"=>"value"
   
foreach ($input_array AS $key1 => $val1) {
       
       
# explode the path to find the list of nested keys
       
$temp1 = explode(',',$key1);
       
# if this path isn't an array, skip this cycle
       
if (!is_array($temp1)) {
            continue;
        }
       
# reverse sort the keys so we'll start building from
        # the bottom, not the top
       
krsort($temp1);
       
# start with the temporary array off with the end value
       
$temp2 = $val1;
       
# loop through the nested keys
       
foreach($temp1 AS $val2) {
           
# if this nested key has no name,
            # (and isn't "0") skip this cycle
           
if ($val2===false) {
                continue;
            }
           
# gradually build up the this temporary nested array
            # from the leaf, working up the branches to the trunk
           
$temp2 = array($val2 => $temp2);
        }
       
# for this cycle, dump this bucketful of data into the bathtub
       
$output_array = array_merge_recursive($output_array,$temp2);
    }
    return
$output_array;
}
?>
correojulian33-php at yahoo dot es
28-Nov-2007 02:59
This example may help to overcome the limitation on $this.

Populate automatically fields of an object form a $_GET variable.

<?php
class pp{
   var
$prop1=1,$prop2=2,$prop3=array(3,4,5);

   function
fun1(){
     
$vars=get_class_vars('pp');
      while(list(
$var,$value)=each($vars)){
              
$ref=& $this->$var;
              
$ref=$_GET[$var];

      }
// while
     
var_dump($this);
   }
}

$_GET['prop1']="uno";
$_GET['prop2']="dos";
$_GET['prop3']=array('tres','cuatro','cinco','seis');

$p=new pp();
$p->fun1();
?>

output is ...

object(pp)#1 (3) {
  ["prop1"]=>
  &string(3) "uno"
  ["prop2"]=>
  &string(3) "dos"
  ["prop3"]=>
  &array(4) {
    [0]=>
    string(4) "tres"
    [1]=>
    string(6) "cuatro"
    [2]=>
    string(5) "cinco"
    [3]=>
    string(4) "seis"
  }
}
the_tevildo at yahoo dot com
13-Oct-2007 01:22
This is a handy function I put together to allow variable variables to be used with arrays.

To use the function, when you want to reference an array, send it in the form 'array:key' rather than 'array[key]'.

For example:

<?php

function indirect ($var, $value)     // Replaces $$var = $value
{
  
$var_data = $explode($var, ':');
   if (isset(
$var_data[1]))
   {
      ${
$var_data[0]}[$var_data[1]] = $value;
   }
   else
   {
      ${
$var_data[0]} = $value;
   }
}

$temp_array = array_fill(0, 4, 1);
$temp_var = 1;
$int_var_list = array('temp_array[2]', 'temp_var');

while (list(
$key, $var_name) = each($int_var_list))
{
  
//  Doesn't work - creates scalar variable called "$temp_array[2]"
  
$$var_name = 0;
}

var_dump($temp_array);
echo
'<br>';
var_dump($temp_var);
echo
'<br>';

//  Does work!

$int_var_list = array('temp_array:2', 'temp_var');

while (list(
$key, $var_name) = each($int_var_list))
{
  
indirect($var_name, 2);
}

var_dump($temp_array);
echo
'<br>';
var_dump($temp_var);
echo
'<br>';
?>
Sinured
11-Jun-2007 01:07
One interesting thing I found out: You can concatenate variables and use spaces. Concatenating constants and function calls are also possible.

<?php
define
('ONE', 1);
function
one() {
    return
1;
}
$one = 1;

${
"foo$one"} = 'foo';
echo
$foo1; // foo
${'foo' . ONE} = 'bar';
echo
$foo1; // bar
${'foo' . one()} = 'baz';
echo
$foo1; // baz
?>

This syntax doesn't work for functions:

<?php
$foo
= 'info';
{
"php$foo"}(); // Parse error

// You'll have to do:
$func = "php$foo";
$func();
?>

Note: Don't leave out the quotes on strings inside the curly braces, PHP won't handle that graciously.
mot at tdvniikp dot ru
05-May-2006 03:41
You can simple access Globals by variable variables in functions, example:
<?php
function abc() {
   
$context = '_SESSION';

    global $
$context;
    if(isset($
$context)) {
       
var_dump($$context);
    }
}
abc();
?>
fabio at noc dot soton dot ac dot uk
11-Oct-2005 11:15
A static variable variable sounds like an oxymoron and indeed cannot exist. If you define:

<?php
$var
= "ciao";
static $
$var = 0;
?>

you get a parse error.
Regards,

Fabio
rafael at fuchs inf br
22-Mar-2005 04:08
You can use constants in variable variables, like I show below. This works fine:

<?php
define
("TEST","Fuchs");
$Fuchs = "Test";

echo
TEST . "<BR>";
echo ${
TEST};
?>

output:

Fuchs
Test
Anonymous
14-Mar-2005 03:25
It may be worth specifically noting, if variable names follow some kind of "template," they can be referenced like this:

<?php
// Given these variables ...
$nameTypes    = array("first", "last", "company");
$name_first   = "John";
$name_last    = "Doe";
$name_company = "PHP.net";

// Then this loop is ...
foreach($nameTypes as $type)
  print ${
"name_$type"} . "\n";

// ... equivalent to this print statement.
print "$name_first\n$name_last\n$name_company\n";
?>

This is apparent from the notes others have left, but is not explicitly stated.
Shawn Beltz
02-Mar-2005 08:06
Multidimensional variable variables.  If you want to run the below as one big program, you'll have to undefine $foo in between assignments.

<?php

$foo
= "this is foo.";
$ref = "foo";
print $
$ref;
# prints "this is foo."

$foo[1]['a_z'] = "this is foo[1][a_z].";
$ref = "foo[1][a_z]";
print $
$ref;
# Doesn't print anything!

$foo = "this is foo.";
$ref = "foo";
$erf = eval("return \$$ref;");
print
$erf;
# prints "this is foo."

$foo[1]['a_z'] = "this is foo[1][a_z].";
$ref = "foo[1][a_z]";
$erf = eval("return \$$ref;");
print
$erf;
# prints "this is foo[1][a_z]."

?>
sir_hmba AT yahoo DOT com
06-May-2003 10:08
This is somewhat redundant, but I didn't see an example that combined dynamic reference of *both* object and attribute names.

Here's the code:

<?php
class foo
{
    var
$bar;
    var
$baz;

    function
foo()
    {
       
$this->bar = 3;
       
$this->baz = 6;
    }
}

$f = new foo();
echo
"f->bar=$f->bar  f->baz=$f->baz\n";

$obj  = 'f';
$attr = 'bar';
$val  = $$obj->{$attr};

echo
"obj=$obj  attr=$attr  val=$val\n";
?>

And here's the output:

f->bar=3  f->baz=6
$obj=f  $attr=bar  $val=3
antony dot booth at nodomain dot here
19-Sep-2002 02:17
You may think of using variable variables to dynamically generate variables from an array, by doing something similar to: -

<?php
 
foreach ($array as $key => $value)
 {
  $
$key= $value;
 }

?>

This however would be reinventing the wheel when you can simply use:

<?php
extract
( $array, EXTR_OVERWRITE);
?>

Note that this will overwrite the contents of variables that already exist.

Extract has useful functionality to prevent this, or you may group the variables by using prefixes too, so you could use: -

EXTR_PREFIX_ALL

<?php
$array
=array("one" => "First Value",
"two" => "2nd Value",
"three" => "8"
               
);
          
extract( $array, EXTR_PREFIX_ALL, "my_prefix_");
  
?>

This would create variables: -
$my_prefix_one
$my_prefix_two
$my_prefix_three

containing: -
"First Value", "2nd Value" and "8" respectively
jupp-mueller at t-online dot de
08-Sep-2002 01:29
I found another undocumented/cool feature: variable member variables in classes. It's pretty easy:

<?php
class foo {
  function
bar() {
   
$bar1 = "var1";
   
$bar2 = "var2";
   
$this->{$bar1}= "this ";
   
$this->{$bar2} = "works";
  }
}

$test = new foo;
$test->bar();
echo
$test->var1 . $test->var2;
?>
thien_tmpNOSPAM at hotmail dot com
20-Aug-2002 10:37
You can also use variable variables and the string concat operator to generate suffixed (or prefixed) variables based on a base name.

For instance, if you wanted to dynamically generate this series of variables:

base1_suffix1
base1_suffix2
base2_suffix1
base2_suffix2
base3_suffix1
base3_suffix2

You can do this:

<?php
$bases
= array('base1', 'base2', 'base3');
$suffixes = array('suffix1', suffix2);
foreach(
$bases as $base) {
    foreach(
$suffixes as $suffix) {
        ${
$base.$suffix} = "whatever";
       
#...etc
   
}
}
?>
J. Dyer
12-Aug-2002 08:05
Another use for this feature in PHP is dynamic parsing.. 

Due to the rather odd structure of an input string I am currently parsing, I must have a reference for each particular object instantiation in the order which they were created.  In addition, because of the syntax of the input string, elements of the previous object creation are required for the current one. 

Normally, you won't need something this convolute.  In this example, I needed to load an array with dynamically named objects - (yes, this has some basic Object Oriented programming, please bare with me..)

<?php
  
include("obj.class");

  
// this is only a skeletal example, of course.
  
$object_array = array();

  
// assume the $input array has tokens for parsing.
  
foreach ($input_array as $key=>$value){
     
// test to ensure the $value is what we need.
        
$obj = "obj".$key;
         $
$obj = new Obj($value, $other_var);
        
Array_Push($object_array, $$obj);
     
// etc..
  
}

?>

Now, we can use basic array manipulation to get these objects out in the particular order we need, and the objects no longer are dependant on the previous ones.

I haven't fully tested the implimentation of the objects.  The  scope of a variable-variable's object attributes (get all that?) is a little tough to crack.  Regardless, this is another example of the manner in which the var-vars can be used with precision where tedious, extra hard-coding is the only alternative.

Then, we can easily pull everything back out again using a basic array function: foreach.

<?php
//...
  
foreach($array as $key=>$object){

      echo
$key." -- ".$object->print_fcn()." <br/>\n";

   }
// end foreach  

?>

Through this, we can pull a dynamically named object out of the array it was stored in without actually knowing its name.
04-Jun-2002 06:34
The 'dollar dereferencing' (to coin a phrase) doesn't seem to be limited to two layers, even without curly braces.  Observe:

<?php
$one
= "two";
$two = "three";
$three = "four";
$four = "five";
echo $$$
$one; //prints 'five'.
?>

This works for L-values as well.  So the below works the same way:

<?php
$one
= "two";
$
$one = "three";
$$
$one = "four";
$$$
$one = "five";
echo $$$
$one; //still prints 'five'.
?>

NOTE: Tested on PHP 4.2.1, Apache 2.0.36, Red Hat 7.2
chrisNOSPAM at kampmeier dot net
08-Aug-2001 05:40
Note that normal variable variables will not be parsed in double-quoted strings. You'll have to use the braces to make it work, to resolve the ambiguity. For example:

<?php
$varname
= "foo";
$foo = "bar";

print $
$varname // Prints "bar"
print "$$varname" // Prints "$foo"
print "${$varname}"; // Prints "bar"
?>
mstearne at entermix dot com
11-May-2001 01:09
Variable variables techniques do not work when one of the "variables" is a constant.  The example below illustrates this.  This is probably the desired behavior for constants, but was confusing for me when I was trying to figure it out.  The alternative I used was to add the variables I needed to the $GLOBALS array instead of defining them as constants.

<?php

define
("DB_X_NAME","database1");
define("DB_Y_NAME","database2");
$DB_Z_NAME="database3";


function
connectTo($databaseName){
global
$DB_Z_NAME;

$fullDatabaseName="DB_".$databaseName."_NAME";
return ${
$fullDatabaseName};

}

print
"DB_X_NAME is ".connectTo("X")."<br>";
print
"DB_Y_NAME is ".connectTo("Y")."<br>";
print
"DB_Z_NAME is ".connectTo("Z")."<br>";

?>
[Editor Note: For variable constants, use constant() --Philip]
bpotier at edreamers dot org
26-Feb-2001 05:11
A good example of the use of variable variables name. Imagine that you want to modify at the same time a list of more than one record from a db table.
1) You can easily create a dynamic form using PHP. Name your form elements using a static name and the record id
ex: <input name="aninput<?php echo $recordid?>" which gives in the output something like <input name="aninput15">

2)You need to provide to your form action/submit script the list of records ids via an array serialized and urlencoded via an hidden field (to decode and un serialize once in the submit script)

3) In the script used to submit you form you can access the input value by using the variable ${'aninput'.$recordid} to dynamically create as many UPDATE query as you need

[Editor Note: Simply use an array instead, for example: <input name="aninput[<?php echo $recordid?>]" And loop through that array. -Philip]
dnl at au dot ru
08-Dec-2000 07:01
By the way...
Variable variables can be used as pointers to objects' properties:

<?php
class someclass {
  var
$a = "variable a";
  var
$b = "another variable: b";
  }

$c = new someclass;
$d = "b";
echo
$c->{$d};
?>

outputs: another variable: b
mccoyj at mail dot utexas dot edu
03-Nov-2000 11:36
There is no need for the braces for variable object names...they are only needed by an ambiguity arises concerning which part of the reference is variable...usually with arrays.

<?php
class Schlemiel {
var
$aVar = "foo";
}

$schlemiel = new Schlemiel;
$a = "schlemiel";
echo $
$a->aVar;
?>

This code outputs "foo" using PHP 4.0.3.

Hope this helps...
- Jordan
 

 
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