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Таблица сравнения типов в PHP

Следующие таблицы демонстрируют работу PHP с типами переменных и операторами сравнения, как в случае свободного, так и в случае строгого сравнения. Также эта информация относится к разделу документации по приведению типов. Вдохновением на создание этого раздела мы обязаны различным комментариям пользователей и работе над » BlueShoes.

До осмотра таблиц, важно знать и понимать типы переменных и их значения. К примеру, "42" -- строка, в то время как 42 -- целое. FALSE -- логическое, а "false" -- строка.

Замечание: HTML-формы не передают тип переменной: они всегда передают строки. Для проверки является ли строка числом, используйте функцию is_numeric().

Замечание: Использование if ($x) пока $x не определена сгенерирует ошибку E_NOTICE. Вместо этого используйте функцию empty() или isset() и/или инициализируйте переменную.

Сравнение типов $x и результатов функций PHP, связанных с типами
Выражение gettype() empty() is_null() isset() логическое : if($x)
$x = ""; строка TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE
$x = NULL NULL TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE
var $x; NULL TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE
$x неопределена NULL TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE
$x = array(); массив TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE
$x = false; логическое TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE
$x = true; логическое FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE
$x = 1; целое FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE
$x = 42; целое FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE
$x = 0; целое TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE
$x = -1; целое FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE
$x = "1"; строка FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE
$x = "0"; строка TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE
$x = "-1"; строка FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE
$x = "php"; строка FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE
$x = "true"; строка FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE
$x = "false"; строка FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE

Гибкое сравнение с помощью ==
TRUE FALSE 1 0 -1 "1" "0" "-1" NULL array() "php"
TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE
FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE
1 TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE
0 FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE
-1 TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE
"1" TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE
"0" FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE
"-1" TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE
NULL FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE
array() FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE
"php" TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE

Жёсткое сравнение с помощью ===
TRUE FALSE 1 0 -1 "1" "0" "-1" NULL array() "php"
TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE
FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE
1 FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE
0 FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE
-1 FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE
"1" FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE
"0" FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE
"-1" FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE
NULL FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE
array() FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE
"php" FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE

Замечание: Заметка о PHP 3.0
Строка "0" считалась не пустой, в PHP4 ситуация изменилась: строка трактуется как пустая.


User Contributed Notes
PHP type comparison tables
php at benizi dot com
15-Feb-2010 06:31
It's interesting to note that 'empty()' and 'boolean : if($x)'
are paired as logical opposites, as are 'is_null()' and 'isset()'.
edgar at goodforall dot eu
15-Dec-2009 02:55
Some function to write out your own comparisson table in tsv format. Can be easily modified to add more testcases and/or binary functions. It will test all comparables against each other with all functions.

<?php
$funcs
= array(
       
/* Testing equality */
       
'eq' => '==',
       
'ne' => '!=',
       
'gt' => '>',
       
'lt' => '<',
       
'ne2' => '<>',
       
'lte' => '<=',
       
'gte' => '>=',
       
/* Testing identity */
       
'id' => '===',
       
'nid' => '!=='
);
class
Test {
        protected
$a;
        public
$b;
        public function
__construct($a,$b){
               
$this->a = $a;
               
$this->b = $b;
        }
        public function
getab(){
                return
$this->a.",". $this->b;
        }

}
$tst1 = new Test(1,2);
$tst2 = new Test(1,2);
$tst3 = new Test(2,2);
$tst4 = new Test(1,1);

$arr1 = array(1,2,3);
$arr2 = array(2,3,4);
$arr3 = array('a','b','c','d');
$arr4 = array('a','b','c');
$arr5 = array();

$comp1 = array(
       
'ints' => array(-1,0,1,2),
       
'floats' => array(-1.1,0.0,1.1,2.0),
       
'string' => array('str', 'str1', '', '1'),
       
'bools' => array(true, false),
       
'null' => array(null),
       
'objects' => array($tst1,$tst2,$tst3,$tst4),
       
'arrays' => array($arr1, $arr2, $arr3, $arr4, $arr5)
);
$fbody = array();

foreach(
$funcs as $name => $op){
       
$fbody[$name] = create_function('$a,$b', 'return $a ' . $op . ' $b;');
}

$table = array(array('function', 'comp1', 'comp2', 'f comp1 comp2', 'type'));
/* Do comparisons */
$comp2  = array();
foreach(
$comp1 as $type => $val){
       
$comp2[$type] = $val;
}

foreach(
$comp1 as $key1 => $val1){
        foreach(
$comp2 as $key2 => $val2){
               
addTableEntry($key1, $key2, $val1, $val2);
        }
}
$out = '';
foreach(
$table as $row){
       
$out .= sprintf("%-20s\t%-20s\t%-20s\t%-20s\t%-20s\n", $row[0], $row[1], $row[2], $row[3], $row[4]);
}

print
$out;
exit;

function
addTableEntry($n1, $n2, $comp1, $comp2){
        global
$table, $fbody;
        foreach(
$fbody as $fname => $func){
                        foreach(
$comp1 as $val1){
  foreach(
$comp2 as $val2){
                                       
$val = $func($val1,$val2);
                                               
$table[] = array($fname, gettype($val1) . ' => ' . sprintval($val1), gettype($val2) .' => ' . sprintval($val2), gettype($val) . ' => ' . sprintval($val), gettype($val1) . "-" . gettype($val2) . '-' . $fname);
                                        }
                        }
        }
}

function
sprintval($val){
        if(
is_object($val)){
                return
'object-' . $val->getab();
        }
        if(
is_array($val)){
                return
implode(',', $val);
        }
        if(
is_bool($val)){
                if(
$val){
                        return
'true';
                }
                return
'false';
        }
        return
strval($val);
}

?>
rich
08-May-2008 02:20
The note about object comparison should be corrected. Cloning objects does not imply instances are the same, so === would return FALSE.

Compare object
<?php
$o
= new stdClass();
$o->we = 12;

$o2 = new stdClass();
$o2->we = 12;

$o3 = clone $o2;
var_dump($o == $o2); //true
var_dump($o === $o2); //false
var_dump($o3 === $o2); //false
?>
gernovich at ya dot ru
08-May-2008 07:48
Universal comparison test.

<?php

$tests
= array();
$tests['==']  = create_function('$a, $b', 'return $a==$b;');
$tests['==='] = create_function('$a, $b', 'return $a===$b;');
$tests['!='] = create_function('$a, $b', 'return $a!=$b;');
$tests['<>'] = create_function('$a, $b', 'return $a<>$b;');
$tests['!=='] = create_function('$a, $b', 'return $a!==$b;');
$tests['<']   = create_function('$a, $b', 'return $a<$b;');
$tests['>']   = create_function('$a, $b', 'return $a>$b;');
$tests['<=']  = create_function('$a, $b', 'return $a<=$b;');
$tests['>=']  = create_function('$a, $b', 'return $a>=$b;');

$comparison = array();
$comparison['TRUE'] = true;
$comparison['FALSE'] = false;
$comparison['1'] = 1;
$comparison['0'] = 0;
$comparison['-1'] = -1;
$comparison['3,14'] = pi();
$comparison['"1"'] = '1';
$comparison['"0"'] = '0';
$comparison['"-1"'] = '-1';
$comparison['NULL'] = null;
$comparison['array()'] = array();
$comparison['"php"'] = 'php';
       
print
'<h1>PHP version '.PHP_VERSION.' type comparison tables</h1>';
       
foreach (
$tests as $test=>$function) {
    print
"<h2>Comparisons with $test</h2>";
    print
"<table border='1'>";
    print
"<tr>";
    print
"<th>&nbsp;</th>";
    foreach (
array_keys($comparison) as $name) {
        print
"<th>$name</th>";
    }
    print
"</tr>";
    foreach (
$comparison as $arg_1_name => $arg_1_value) {
        print
'<tr>';
        print
"<th>$arg_1_name</th>";
        foreach (
$comparison as $arg_2_value) {
            print
'<td>';
            print
$function($arg_1_value, $arg_2_value)==true ?
                       
'<span style="color:#00F;">TRUE</span>' : '<span style="color:#F00;">FALSE</span>';
            print
'</td>';
        }
        print
"</tr>";
    }
    print
"</table>";
}

?>
info at shaelf dot ru
06-Jan-2008 09:51
Compare object
<?php
$o
= new stdClass();
$o->we = 12;

$o2 = new stdClass();
$o2->we = 12;

$o3 = clone $o2;
var_dump($o == $o2); //true
var_dump($o === $o2); //false
var_dump($o3 === $o2); //true
?>
frank
14-Aug-2007 10:06
A comparison table for <=,<,=>,> would be nice...
Following are TRUE (tested PHP4&5):
NULL <= -1
NULL <= 0
NULL <= 1
!(NULL >= -1)
NULL >= 0
!(NULL >= 1)
That was a surprise for me (and it is not like SQL, I would like to have the option to have SQL semantics with NULL...).
15-Mar-2007 10:06
Re: omit's comment

The note omit quotes is referring to the VALUE returned, not its name. If you put 42 into a text field, the corresponding array value will be the string "42". The note makes no comment on the array's keys.
omit
23-Aug-2006 06:32
the manual said "HTML Forms do not pass integers, floats, or booleans; they pass strings"

while this is true, php will sometimes change the type to either type array, or possibly type integer(no, not a numeric string) if it was used as an array key. php seems to do this when it parses the request data into the predefined variable arrays.

example:

<input type="text" name="foo[5]">
<input type="text" name="foo[7]">

now obviously the browser will send those names as a string. but php will change thier type.

<?php

// $_POST['foo'] is an array
var_dump($_POST['foo']);

foreach (
$_POST['foo'] as $key => $val) {
   
// the keys 5 and 7 will be type integer
   
var_dump($key);
}

?>

because of this, its also a good idea to check the types of your variables.
Jan
29-Dec-2005 07:23
Note that php comparison is not transitive:

"php" == 0 => true
0 == null => true
null == "php" => false
jerryschwartz at comfortable dot com
26-Jul-2005 08:04
In some languages, a boolean is promoted to an integer (with a value of 1 or -1, typically) if used in an expression with an integer. I found that PHP has it both ways:

If you add a boolean with a value of true to an integer with a value of 3, the result will be 4 (because the boolean is cast as an integer).

On the other hand, if you test a boolean with a value of true for equality with an integer with a value of three, the result will be true (because the integer is cast as a boolean).

Surprisingly, at first glance, if you use either < or > as the comparison operator the result is always false (again, because the integer as cast as a boolean, and true is neither greater nor less than true).
tom
17-Jun-2005 09:27
<?php
if (strlen($_POST['var']) > 0) {
   
// form value is ok
}
?>

When working with HTML forms this a good way to:

(A) let "0" post values through like select or radio values that correspond to array keys or checkbox booleans that would return FALSE with empty(), and;
(B) screen out $x = "" values, that would return TRUE with isset()!

Because HTML forms post values as strings, this is a good way to test variables!

[[Editor Note: This will create a PHP Error of level E_NOTICE if the checked variable (in this case $_POST['var']) is undefined. It may be used after (in conjuection with) isset() to prevent this.]]
aidan at php dot net
24-Jan-2005 03:00
The way PHP handles comparisons when multiple types are concerned is quite confusing.

For example:
"php" == 0

This is true, because the string is casted interally to an integer. Any string (that does not start with a number), when casted to an integer, will be 0.
 

 
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